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  1. Common fabric defects and its causes:

Common fabric defects and its causes:

Often inspectors are given the responsibility of inspecting finished garments without adequate training in fabric defects and their causes. The ultimate solution, of course, is to provide actual examples or photographs of both major and minor defects. This section provides a list of defects and explanations and simplifies the language and the judgments used in making visual fabric evaluations. The Quality Control Manager can provide this list to inspectors as a practical tool for achieving uniform inspection decisions.

Major and Minor Defects

The following definitions are central to fabric inspection:
Major Defect - A defect that, if conspicuous on the finished product, would cause the item to be a second. (A "second" is a garment with a conspicuous defect that affects the salability or service ability of the item.
 Minor Defects - A defect that would not cause the product to be termed a second either because of severity or location. When inspecting piece goods prior to cutting, it is necessary to rate questionable defects as major, since the inspector will not know where the defect may occur on the item.




Defect Cause Severity
Askewed or Bias Condition where filling yarns are not square with wrap yarns on woven fabrics or where courses arenot square with wale lines on knits. Major or Minor
Back Fabric Seam Impression Backing fabric is often used to cushion fabric being printed. If there is a joining seam in the backing fabric, an impression will result on printed fabric. Major
Barre Occurs in circular knit. Caused by mixing yarn on feed into machine. Fabric will appear to have horizontal streaks. Usually Major
Birds Eye Birds eye often caused by unintentional tucking from malfunctioning needle. Usually two small distorted stitches caused side by side. Major or Minor depending on severity
Burl Mark When a slub or extra piece of yarn is woven intothe fabric, it is often removed by a "burling tool."This will usually leave an open place in the fabric. Major
Bowing Usually caused by finishing. Woven filling yarns lie in an arc across fabric width. It is critical on stripes or patterns and not as critical on solid color fabrics. Major or Minor
Broken Color Pattern Usually caused by colored yarn out of place on frame. Major
Color Out Color out is the result of color running low in reservoir on printing machine. Major
Color Smears Color Smears are the result of color being smeared during printing. Major or Minor
Crease Mark Differs from crease streak in that streak will probably appear for an entire roll. Crease mark appears when creases are caused by fabric folds in the finishing process. Often discoloration is a problem. Major
Crease Streak Occurs in tubular knits. Results from creased fabric passing through squeeze rollers in dyeing process.Depending on the product. Usually Major
Drop Stitching Drop stitching is resulted from malfunctioning needle or jack appearing as holes or missing stitches. Major
Dropped Pick Caused by the filling insertion mechanism on a shuttleless loom not holding the filling yarn,causing the filling yarn to be woven without tension. The filling yarn appears as "kinky".There will also be areas of "end out". Major
Drawbacks Caused by excessive loom tension gradually applied by some abnormal restriction. When the restriction is removed the excess slack is woven into the fabric. Usually the ends are broken Major
Dye Streak in Printing Results from a damaged doctor blade or a blade not cleaned properly. Usually a long streak until the operator notices the problem. Major
End out Caused by yarn breaking and loom continuing torun with missing end.MajorJerk-in Caused by an extra piece of filling yarn being jerked part way into the fabric by the shuttle. The defect will appear at the selvage. Usually Major
Hole Holes on fabrics are usually caused by broken needle. Major
Jerk In Jerk Ins are caused by an extra piece of filling yarn being jerked part way into the fabric by the shuttle. The defect will appear at the selvage. Major or Minor
Knots Knots are caused by tying spools of yarn together. Usually Minor
Missing Yarn Occurs in circular knit. Caused by one end of yarn missing from feed and machine continuing to run. Major
Mixed Filling Caused by bobbin of lightweight yarn or different fiber blend used in filling. Will appear as a distinct shade change. Major
Mixed Yarn Mixed yarn is a different fiber blend used on the warp frame, resulting in a streak in the fabric. Usually Major
Mottled Mottles occurs when colors applied unevenly during printing. Major or Minor
Needle Line Needle Line is caused by bent needle forming distorted stitches in a vertical line. Major or Minor
Open Reed Open reed are the results from a bent reed wire causing warp ends to be held apart, exposing the filling yarn. Major
Pin Holes Pin holes along selvage caused by pins holding fabric while it processes through tender frame.
Major> if pin holes extend into body of fabric far enough to be visible in the finished product
Major
Press Off Press Off occurs when all or some of the needles on circular knitting fail to function. Fabric either falls off the machine or design is completely disrupted or destroyed. Major
Printing Machine Stop Mark Dye or ink smudged along width of fabric as a result of the printing machine stopping.
Print Out of Repair Caused by print rollers not being synchronized properly. This results in various colors of the design not being printed in the proper position.
Puckered Selvage Usually caused by selvage being stretched in finishing or by uneven wetting out in sanforization process. Major
Runner Runner is a caused by broken needle. The runner will appear as a vertical line. Most machines have a stopping device to stop the machine when a needle breaks. Major or Minor
Sanforize Pucker Usually caused by defective spray heads resulting in uneven wetting out of Sanforize. Fabric will appear wavy or puckering when spread on cutting table. It is difficult to detect while inspecting on inspection machine with fabric under roller tension. Major or Minor
Scrimp Scrip is the result of fabric being folded or creased when passing through tender frames. Major
Skewing Skewing refers to condition where filling yarns are not square with warp yarns on woven fabrics or where courses are not square with wale lines on knits. It happens when the fabric shrinks more perpendicular to the twill line than along the twill line.
Slub Slub refers to thick or heavy places in the yarn or flying waste yarn getting into yarn feeds during spinning process. Slub and other inconsistencies are common in fabrics produced on vintage shuttle looms. Major or Minor
Smash Small caused by a number of ruptured warp ends that has been repaired Major
Soiled Filling Soiled filling is dirty oily looking spots on the warp or filling yarns, or on packaged-dye yarn. Can be Major or Minor
Stop Mark Stop mark occurs when the loom is stopped, the yarn elongates under tension. When the loom starts again, the slack is woven into the fabric. Can be major or Minor
Straying End Straying End is caused when an end of yarn breaks and the loose end strays and is knit irregularly into another area.
Thin Place Thin Place is often caused by the filling yarn breaking and the loom continuing to run until the operator notices the problem. Major
Water Spots Water spots are usually caused by wet fabric being allowed to remain too long before drying, Color migrates leaving blotchy spots. Major
Pilling Pilling refers to the forming of little matted balls on the surface of knitted fabrics. Pilling occurs when soft yarn rubs against itself, resulting in tangled fibers and produces an uneven and worn look.

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