Fabric Inspection and Terms
The quality of a final garment depends on the quality of a fabric when it is received as a roll. Even the most outstanding manufacturing methods cannot compensate for defective materials. Normally, 10% of the rolls received are inspected and evaluated based on a four-point system. This way, fabric related quality problems can ve avoided before it is put into production
Four Point System
The 4-Point System assigns 1, 2, 3 and 4 penalty points according to the size and significance of the defect.It is a widely recognized inspection method frequently usedin the textile industry.It is a technique issued by the American Society for Testing & Materials with reference to the designation ASTMD5 430-93.Start the frame and inspect for defects. Run the frame at20±5 yards per minute (18±5 meters per minute). Points are assigned according to the following criteria:4-POINT SYSTEM DEFECT EVALUATION
|Assigned Points||Size of Defects(In inches)||Size of Defects(in Cms)|
|1||< 3"||< 8 cm|
|2||> 3" < 6"||> 8 cm < 15 cm|
|3||> 6" < 9"||> 15 cm < 23 cm|
|4||> 9"||> 23 cm|
If a defect is observed:Faults are classified and scored with penalty points of 1, 2, 3 and 4, according to their size and significance.Each defect should be counted as a separate defecteven if the nature is the same and then based on thepoints allocated to each defect, total points should be calculated.
- No more than 4 penalty points can be assigned for any single defect.
- No linear yard or meter can contain more than 4 points, regardless of the number of defects within that yard or meter.
- A continuous running defect which exceeds 9 inches (23 cm) should be assigned 4 points. In the event there is an additional defects within the same linear yard or meter it should be considered as a separate defect and assigned defect point accordingly.
- Any continuous defect (i.e., roll to roll shading, narrow or irregular width, creasing,uneven finish, barre’, skew, etc.) should be assigned a maximum of 4 points for every yard or meter within a shipment.
- Each full width defect should assign 4 points.
- Obvious, noticeable and severe defects are to be assigned 4 points for each yard or meter in which they occur, regardless of size.
(along the length)
(along the width)
|0.1 to 3.0 in (0.1 to 8.0 cm)||1||0.1 to 3.0 in (0.1 to 8.0 cm)||1|
|3.1 to 6.0 in (8.1 to 15.0 cm)||2||3.1 to 6.0 in (8.1 to 15.0 cm)||2|
|6.1 to 9.0 in(15.1 to 23.0 cm)||3||6.1 to 9.0 in (15.1 to 23.0 cm)||3|
|9.1 to 36.0 in (23.1 to 92.0 cm)||4||9.1 to full width (above 23.1 cm)||4|
A maximum of 4 points may be assigned to any one linear yard), regardless of the number or size of theindividual defects.For a continuous lengthwise running defect, 4 points and 1 defect will be assigned to each linear yard where the defect exceeds 9 inches (23 centimeters).Example: barre effect on the full roll in 100 linear yards:400 points should be assigned with 100 defects. So if the acceptance criteria are 40 points / 100 yd2,then this roll is acceptable.The maximum number of defect points to be counted against any one linear yard is 4 points.Overall, fabric quality is assessed on the basis of the number of defect points per 100 yd2 of fabric.
|Initial Factory Evaluation||Thi is an in-depth study of vendor's production capacity, machineries and quality control capabilities before placeing an order. It ensures that the most appropriate factory is selected.|
|Pre-Production process||This is to insect materials and components before production starts to ensure that the fuction and apearance of the components are consistent and satisfactory|
|During Production Inspection||It is an inspection of the first batch at the early stage of production. The first batch are randomly inspected for any possible defects, identify deviation so as to ensure a uniformed batch|
|Final Random Inspection||It is a random inspection using MIL-STD-105E, BS8001, ISO 2859, DIN 40080 or to the customers individual required standard, after the shipment has been completed, packed and ready to be shiped. Colour , appearance, workmanship,style etc will be checked against the customer's specifications.|
|Acceptable Quality Level(AQL)||AQL is the maximum accpetable percentage od defect for purposes of sampling inspection, can be considered as a process average|
|Critical Defect||It is a defect that judgement and experience indicate is likely to result in hazardeous or unsafe conditions for inidviduals using ,maintaining or depending upon the product.|
|Major Defect||It is a defect, other than critical, that is likely to result in failure or to reduce materially the usuability of the unit of product for its intended purposes.|
|Minor Defect||It is a defect that is not likely to reduce materially the unstability of the unit of product for the intended purpose.|
Points Per Classification
Individual rolls exceeding the points allowed are removed from the shipment. A shipment is rejected if the point total exceeds the allowable limit.
|GROUP NO.||DESCRIPTION||POINTS ALLOWED PER INDIVIDUAL ROLL||POINTS ALLOWED PER SHIPMENT|
|I||Dress Shirting’s - >50/1
All Tailored Suiting Fabrics
Open End Denim 12-16 oz./ yd2
Light weight Denim 4-8oz./yd2
Mid weight Denim 9-12oz./yd2
|20 points/100 yard2
24 points/100 meter2
|15 points/100 yard2
18 point/100 meter2
|II||Ring spun Denim 12-16oz./yd.2
Woven’s with Spandex/Elastane
Seersucker, Dobby, Jacquard
Chambray/Indigo Yarn Dyes
|25 points/100 yard2
||20 points/100 yard2
|III||All Specialty Knits||30 points/100 yard2
36 points/100 meter2
| 25 points/100 yard2
30 points/100 meter2
|40 points/100 yard2
48 points/100 meter2
|32 points/100 yard2
38 points/100 meter2
|60 points/100 yard2
72 points/100 meter2
|50 points/100 yard2
60 points/100 meter2