When ‘colour’ is applied to a fabric it is termed as dyeing. Dyeing and printing of fabrics is usually done after routine or basic finishes but prior to the application of other finishes. It is mainly done to give colour to the fabric and thus improve the appearance of the fabric.
Dyeing can be performed using continuous or batch processes. Yarn dyeing is used to create interesting checks, stripes, and plaids with different-coloured yarns in the weaving process. Substances which cause these changes are called dyestuffs.
The Dyes are classified based on the fibres to which they can be applied and the chemical nature of each dye. Dyes are complex unsaturated aromatic compounds fulfilling characteristics like intense colour, soluability, Substansiveness and fastness. Dyes can be defined as the different type of colouring particles which differ in each type from the other in chemical composition and are used for colouring fabrics in different colours and shades which are completely soluble in liquid media.
Fabrics are often printed with colour and patterns using a variety of techniques and machine types. It is the process of transferring colour, pattern, motif or decoration of one or more colours in any one of a variety of methods or techniques to fabric. It involves the surface application of colour in a predetermined pattern, design or motif by manual or mechanical directed discharge, direct or resist methods.
Finishing encompasses chemical or mechanical treatments performed on fibre, yarn, or fabric to improve appearance, texture, or performance. Some of the fabric finishing methods are-Brushing, Shearing, Pressing, Raising, Beetling, Calendaring, Folding, etc. Finishing can be carried out in 3 stages i.e. Pre-treatment, coloration and Finishing.