Textile composite materials
A class of advanced materials, which are reinforced with textile preforms for structural or load bearing applications
A composite textile material (also called a composition material or shortened to composite) is a material made from two or more constituent materials with significantly different physical or chemical properties that, when combined, produce a material with characteristics different from the individual components.
Textile structural reinforced composites
“Textile” is deﬁned as “…originally a woven fabric, but the term ‘textiles’ is now also applied to ﬁbers, ﬁlaments and yarns, natural or man-made, and most products for which they are the principal raw materials. Hence, textiles are ﬁbrous materials. Fibres in a textile are assembled into yarns or ﬁbrous plies, which are arranged to form a textile fabric.
Textile structural composites represent a class of advanced materials, which are reinforced with textile preforms for structural or load bearing applications. As ﬁbers and yarns in textiles are held together by friction, the yarns have to be bent or twisted to provide transversal forces, necessary for friction. The internal structure of a textile is the result of such bending of the yarns, introduced during manufacturing of the fabric.
The internal structure determines the interaction between the ﬁbers and yarns in dry fabric during manufacturing, transferring the applied load to structural ﬁbrous elements of the fabric, which resist the load by their deformation (primarily tension, bending/buckling, lateral compression and friction, and to a lesser extent torsion and shear).
The internal structure means yarn material and its structure and fabric structure determines the performance of a consolidated composite as well: the stress response to the local deformation depends on the local orientation of ﬁbers, which is imposed by there in for cement architecture, and in its turn deﬁne whether damage will be initiated in that particular location and whether it will propagate.
Presently, textile structural composites are part of a larger category of composite materials (Shishoo et al 1971 and Wiemer et al 2000). In general, composites can be defined as a selected combination of dissimilar materials with a specific internal structure and external shape. The unique combination of two material components leads to singular mechanical BEHAVIOR OF TEXTILE PREFORMS DURING COMPOSITE MANUFACTURING
Composite manufacturing techniques, used for textile reinforcements, are covered in Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Composites: Manufacturing and Certiﬁcation Issues. Two main processes involved during the manufacturing are shaping of a textile preform on a three-dimensional mould and impregnation of the preform with resin. The behaviour of the preform during manufacturing is determined correspondingly by its formability and permeability.
The formability (drapability) of a textile fabric reﬂects the easiness of the initially ﬂat fabric to conform to (drape over) a given 3D shape. The permeability of the preform is a tensor coefﬁcient K of Darcy equation, relating the ﬂow velocity of a ﬂuid through the porous medium to the pressure gradient.