Pashmina Wool Fibers
The Pashmina Shawls made with Golden Fibers of Cashmere Goats
Pashmina is another name for Cashmere is a downy undercoat of the Capra Hircus Laniger goats that mainly live in the Trans-Himalayan regions classified as speciality hair fibres which possess special qualities of fineness and lustre, which is used for making finest quality shawls and hijabs.
Dyeing and Finishing
The dying behaviour of pashmina is identical with sheep wool. However, due to the hydrophilic outer cuticle, the uptake of dye is faster. The acid dyes, 1:1 metal complex dye, 1:2 metal complex dyes and reactive dyes are used for pashmina fabrics. Generally, fabrics are dyed with dark shades and with bright colours like red, blue-green, yellow, and black. Dying with acid dyes is carried out at PH 2-3, with the addition of sulphuric acid.
The dying is carried in weak acetic condition by adding acetic acid or sodium acetate. The other important dye used for dying pashmina fabric is 1:2 metal complex dyes. This class of dye provides excellent washing and light fastness to the pashmina fabrics. the local dyers at Srinagar – Kashmir use a different type of levelling agents in order to facilitate quick and even dying. The dying of shawls is carried out in a pot type dying vessel heated with gas stove by exhaust method. The dying of shawls is done individually by hand dying technique.
After dying the fabric is air dried under relaxed conditioned. Pashmina yarns and fabrics are also dyed using natural dyes. The dyers are using indigo for blue, Annotate seed for getting the red colour, and henna, myrobalan for getting yellow and brown shades.
Dyeing is also done by hand, and each piece individually. Dyers with immense patience and generations of experience are the ones who dye the Pashmina shawls, as even the smallest negligence reflects on the quality of the product. Only metal and azo-free dyes are used, making the shawls completely eco-friendly. The pure water used for dying is pumped up from deep beneath the surface. Dyeing is done at a temperature just below boiling point for nearly an hour. Pashmina wool is exceptionally absorbent, and dyes easily and deeply.