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Different Technological Methodologies Used in Garment Industry

Apparel Manufacutring technological advancements adopted by different countries

In this article technologies adopted for production preparatory process, production process and post-production process used in the garment manufacturing industry and the level of technology that is used for each process commonly used by different countries viz. India, China, Bangladesh, Vietnam, and Sri Lanka.

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PRODUCTION PROCESSES

Single Needle Machine

In this process, the Single Needle Machines are used to stitch two layers of the fabric against each other. There are many varieties of this type of machine such as overlock, lockstitch etc. Due to these feature-rich prospects, these machines give a dynamic functionality.

Machines Used by Different Countries

India

Industries in India use semi-automatic Single Needle Machine for sewing purposes because of the more effective cost to performance ratio. These machines are semi-automatic so the operators don’t require a lot of training to operate these machines; also, these machines drive cost reduction further down because of much lower time consumption, low maintenance cost, faster output speed, less breakdown etc are some of the reasons these types of machines are widely accepted in the country. The UBT, stitch setter and servo motor give further dynamism to the overall functionality of these machines.

China

China also uses these mid-level stitching machines because of the dynamics it provides at a low cost.

Bangladesh

Industries in Bangladesh also use these mid-level machines mostly because of the serviceability and low cost of the machine.

Vietnam

Vietnam also uses similar mid-level machines because of the advantages it possesses over its counterparts.

Sri Lanka

Industries in Sri Lanka use similar mid-level machines for stitching purposes.

Double-Needle Machine

A Double Needle Machine works on the same principle as that of a Single Needle Machine with the only difference being that this machine uses two needles and bobbins which leads to two parallel rows of stitch on the fabric.

Machines Used by Different Countries

India

Most industries in India use the mid-level/ semi-automatic Double Needle Machine for stitching purpose because of its faster output speeds and low maintenance cost. These machines are easy to operate as the operator requires only a few hours of training to understand and operate these machines easily. When compared to its counterparts this mid-level machine has a major advantage of pan India serviceability and availability which makes it a popular choice for the manufactures. These machines also have UBT & Servo Motors attached to them which gives further dynamism to these mid-level machines.

China

Industries in China also use similar mid-level machine although there is a scattered presence of completely automatic machine as well in the country.

Bangladesh

Industries in Bangladesh also use these mid-level machines mostly because of the serviceability and low cost of the machine.

Vietnam

Vietnam also uses similar mid-level machines because of the advantages it possesses over its counterparts.

Sri Lanka

Industries in Sri Lanka use similar mid-level machines for stitching purposes.

Overlock Machine

This machine is used for seaming, edging, and hemming purpose in order to finish a garment piece. These machines are different from Single and Double Needle Machines as the threads in this machine are fed with the help of loops instead of the bobbins.

Machines Used by Different Countries

India

Industries in India mostly use Mid – Level/ Semi-Automatic Overlock Machines. These machines are easy to operate when compared to their advanced counterparts. The operators operating these machines only require few hours of training to handle these machines easily. This type of machine also comes with a pneumatic attachment for the suction of excess materials. These machines also feature ridden and adaptive in nature because of the types of stitch and thread types it provides which comes to a lot handy with different fabric. Other advantages include low-cost maintenance, faster output speeds etc.

China

Industries in China also use similar sort of Mid – Level machines for the overlock stitching purpose although some industries also use fully automated ones.

Bangladesh

Bangladesh also uses the same mid-level of machines because of their better serviceability and availability throughout the country.

Vietnam

Vietnam also uses similar sort of machines for overlock stitching purposes because of the low overall cost involved in this type of machine.

Sri Lanka

Industries in Sri Lanka also uses the same Mid – Level machines because of their better serviceability and availability throughout the country.

Feed of Arm

These machines are used wherever close loops of fabrics are present. Ex: Side Seam in Men’s T-Shirt, Inseams in Trousers etc. The hand-like design is intentional which makes it a very useful machine in production.

Machines Used by Different Countries

India

Industries in India mostly use Mid – Level/ Semi-Automatic Feed of Arm machines. These machines are very versatile and dynamic in functionalities it provides such as it is fitted with puller mechanism and servo motor which makes it a popular choice for the manufacturers. These machines are faster than their counterparts while having a low cost of operation and maintenance costs. The operation of this machine is also quite easier for the operators as it requires minimal training to handle when compared to its higher counterparts. The aforementioned qualities of the machine were some of the reasons which justify the popularity of these machines.

China

China also uses similar Mid – Level/ Semi-Automatic machines although completely automatic machines are also present in some industries.

Bangladesh

Industries in Bangladesh also have Mid – Level/ Semi-Automatic machine because of their availability and lower costs of procurement.

Vietnam

Vietnam also uses the same Mid – Level Machines although some smaller-scaled industries still do these operations manually.

Sri Lanka

Industries in Sri Lanka similar to others also use the same sort of Mid – Level Machine for closing the loops in the fabric because of its availability and serviceability in the whole country.

Welt Pocket Making

A welt pocket is generally found on the front of a man’s tailored jacket/blazer or on the reverse of a trouser. These pockets are finished with a welt or reinforced border at the edge of a piece of fabric.

Machines Used by Different Countries

India

India uses the method which follows the marking and turning the welt pocket by hand and stitching it with a double-needle/single needle lockstitch machine afterwards. We also know that Indian garment is a labour driven industry so, workers find the base level more efficient as they have been practising it for a very long time.

China

China has an advanced level technology, uses automatic welt pocket machine

Bangladesh

Bangladesh has a base level technology, uses single/double needle

Vietnam

Vietnam has an advanced level technology, uses automatic welt pocket machine

Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka has an advanced level technology, uses an automatic welt pocket machine

Button Attach

Button attach is the process in which the garment is equipped with different types of buttons where needed. It can be done both manually and by machines.

Machines Used by Different Countries

India

India uses a Mid-level Programmable, Multi stitch capability (No of Passes, designs, X and Y axis setting) machine. The workers just need to position the button just above the mark where it is to be attached. Skilled operators can go up to 10-15 buttons per minute.

China

China has a mid-level technology

Bangladesh

Bangladesh has a mid-level technology,

Vietnam

Vietnam has a mid-level technology

Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka has a mid-level technology

Collar Run

Run stitch done on the inside of collar after fusing it with fusing material. It attaches both panels to form a single structure which when later turned, gives a sturdy collar.

Machines Used by Different Countries

India

India uses a mid-level semi-automatic sewing machine to prepare collar and collar band before attaching them to the garment. Marking is done by the worker according to the pattern and then with the help of template and roller presser foot, the collar is prepared under the sewing machine

China

China has a mid-level technology, Manual sewing using collar template and roller presser foot

Bangladesh

Bangladesh has a mid-level technology, Manual sewing using collar template and roller presser foot

Vietnam

Vietnam has a mid-level technology, Manual sewing using collar template and roller presser foot

Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka has a mid-level technology, Manual sewing using collar template and roller presser foot

Collar Turn and Run

Collar turn and press is the process that is done just after doing a run stitch on the inside. Pressing the collar after turning provides sharp edges which results in a sturdy structure.

 

Machines Used by Different Countries

India

India uses a manual method of collar turn and press. The worker turns the collar to the right side by hand and then press it with a steam iron, keeping in mind that the structure must show sharp edges for a sturdy structure.

China

China has a base-level technology, uses semi-automatic inspection

Bangladesh

Bangladesh has a base-level technology, uses semi-automatic inspection

Vietnam

Vietnam has a base-level technology, uses semi-automatic inspection

Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka has a base-level technology, uses semi-automatic inspection

Cuff Run

Run stitch done on the inside of cuff after fusing it with fusing material. It attaches both panels to form a single structure which when later turned, gives a sturdy collar.

Machines Used by Different Countries

India

India uses mid-level technology for this purpose. Workers mark the cuff for the stitch line and afterwards, a single needle lockstitch machine is used to stitch on those lines, joining the panels of the cuff. China has a mid-level technology, use of template

China

China has a mid-level technology, use of template

Bangladesh

Bangladesh has a base level technology, use of template

Vietnam

Vietnam has a mid-level technology, use of template

Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka has a mid-level technology, use of template

Cuff Turn and Press

After stitching of cut panels of a cuff, it is turned to the right side and the fusing side is inside.

Machines Used by Different Countries

India

India uses a steam iron to press the cuff panels after preparation. A helper is kept at the ironing station who handles all the turn and press operation in a garment factory. Several stations are present in each department

China

China has a base level technology, uses manual ironing

Bangladesh

Bangladesh has a base level technology, uses manual ironing

Vietnam

Vietnam has a base level technology, uses manual ironing

Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka has a base level technology, uses manual ironing

Sleeve Placket Creasing

Some parts of a garment required to be creased so that when attaching it to the main piece there is no difficulty faced for folding or turning the piece.

Machines Used by Different Countries

India

India uses the intermediate level of sleeve placket creasing. Pressing is done via a folder attached to the fusing machine. In a folder, the placket piece is inserted in which is turned inside according to the requirements. The folders have a specific angle in which the placket is turned and made

China

China has a mid-level technology, uses a folder attached to the fusing machine

Bangladesh

Bangladesh has a base level technology, uses manual ironing

Vietnam

Vietnam has a mid-level technology, folder attached to the fusing machine

Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka has a mid-level technology, uses a folder attached to the fusing machine

Back Pocket Creasing

It is done only for denim fabric. It is a method to increase efficiency because when the pocket is attached to the garment, the worker has to give extra attention to the correct stitch line and folding of the pocket.

Machines Used by Different Countries

India

India uses bases level technology for creasing and folding. Steam iron for manual creasing of the back pocket. Patterns are placed on the pocket pieces and according to the seam lines, the piece is folded and ironed.

China

China has a base level technology, using iron box and pattern

Bangladesh

Bangladesh has a base level technology, using iron box and pattern

Vietnam

Vietnam has a mid-level technology, using Automatic pocket creaser

Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka has a mid-level technology, using an Automatic pocket creaser

Back Pocket Attach

Pocket attachment is a two-step process – first to clean and compress the edges, followed by attaching the bag pocket to the correct position. The use of special sewing machines to do this work can help achieve high quality and high productivity. Due to automation standards, the performance of backpack attachment has been discussed under three technical levels – base, intermediate, and advanced.

Machines Used by Different Countries

India

In India Back Pocket Attach in jeans is usually done with a double sewing line, but not the same sewing lines. So even though pocket and topstitch sticker jobs can be done by stitching with a double-needle sewing machine, they cannot be used to get the same look. When sewing using a single needle stitching machine, quality depends on the operator’s ability and any inconsistencies between the lines between the sewing lines will be noticeable. Secondly, the achievement of the operator will be slow at the basic level. Operator efficiency is about 65- 70%.

China

China has a base level technology; it uses a single needle machine and does manual attaching.

Bangladesh

Bangladesh has a base level technology; it uses a single needle machine and does manual attaching

Vietnam

Vietnam has a base level technology; it uses a single needle machine and does manual attaching

Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka has a base level technology; it uses a single needle machine and does manual attaching

Embroidery

The embroidering of fabrics or other material in an artistic way with the help of a needle for inserting threads or a thread is called Embroidery. Other appealing items include pearls, beads, sequins and quails. Every embroidery machine will depend on its capabilities to learn user input and embroider different types of designs.

Machines Used by Different Countries

India

India has advanced level technology, it uses multicolour, multi-needle and multi-head embroidery machine.

These high-end machines come with pre-loaded designs, which can adorn designs up to 7 “x 12”, and can be sewn up to 650 stitches per minute. Advanced machines also provide multiple needles to increase machine flexibility.

China

China has an advanced level technology, it uses multicolour, multi-needle and multi-head embroidery machine

Bangladesh

Bangladesh has an advanced level technology, it uses multicolour, multi-needle and multi-head embroidery
machine

Vietnam

Vietnam has an advanced level technology, it uses multicolour, multi-needle and multi-head embroidery
machine

Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka has an advanced level technology, it uses multicolour, multi-needle and multi-head embroidery
machine

Loop Attach

There are different types of loops used in pants, trousers, shorts, skirts etc. Mostly four types of loops are widely used in denim, knit or woven products. These are Green / standard lock, single-needle / clean finish, single/standard needle, single/ standard needle. It varies with customer requirement, product type, fabric type, designer requirement or customer requirement.

Machines Used by Different Countries

India

India has a base level technology; it uses manual marking and manual attaching. The basic level of technology uses the electronic lock belt loop bar tackers. The operator puts a pre-cut loop on the clamp and then puts the trouser belt under the fence and presses the pedal to start the machine. The operator then reset and inserted another end of the same loop. The performance cycle is repeated in the next line. One operator operating on a single machine takes about 0.90 minutes to install 5 belt loops on just one pair of pants.

China

China has a base level technology; it uses manual marking and manual attaching

Bangladesh

Bangladesh has a base level technology; it uses manual marking and manual attaching

Vietnam

Vietnam has a base level technology; it uses manual marking and manual attaching

Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka has a base level technology; it uses manual marking and manual attaching

Material Handling

The methods used to transport work (such as textiles, cuts, bundles, finished clothes and common items) from one place to another, to store goods and to protect property from damage, are called system management. It can be tools, equipment or processes.

Machines Used by Different Countries

India

India has a base level technology, it uses centre tables and hanger systems. Handling of Material can be done in a number of ways such as a standard table where a side bench is placed or a separate table for cutting and disposing of sewn clothes, while at the centre table a bench is placed between two rows of equipment, and in some carts, bags or drums are used. In many units above the rail and hanger are also used for moving objects. The hanger system reduces labour force, personnel to improve production efficiency using the full production industry space. Very bright and flexible; fork formation is easy with product transfer.

China

China has a base level technology; it uses centre tables and hanger systems.

Bangladesh

Bangladesh has a base level technology; it uses centre tables and hanger systems.

Vietnam

Vietnam has a base level technology; it uses centre tables and hanger systems.

Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka has a base level technology; it uses centre tables and hanger systems.

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