The larger part of staple fibre, approx. 33 mio tons are processed in short staple spinning. This part of the spinning industry therefore is of great significance in the world of textile production.
Cut staple manmade fibers arrive in boxes at the mill and are ready for carding and processing into yarn. When two or more different staple fibers are mixed, it is critical to provide extensive blending before carding and repeated doubling of the sliver to assure intimate blending prior to roving and spinning.
Staple yarn formation involves multiple steps and can include :
- Fiber cleaning and opening (as needed for natural fibers);
- Fiber blending (to assure uniform mixing in natural fibers or in fiber blends);
- Carding (to al ign fibers and to remove short fibers);
- Combing (if highly aligned fibers are desired);
- Drawing and spinning (to reduced the denier of the yarn, to provide twist and to give cohesion to the yarn); and
- Doubling or plying and twisting of the yarns (as needed to provide greater uniformity).
Filament spinning systems are much less complex because the fibers are continuous and do not need to be highly twisted to give a cohesive strong yarn.
Yarns can be made of staple fibres by any one of several techniques.
The method used is depended upon factors such as:
- Manufacturers preference of equipment
- Economic implications
- Fibres to be used
- Desired properties of the yarn
- Kind and quality of fibre
- Amount of processing necessary to produce fineness
- Amount of twist which increases strength in the final yarn
- Conventional ring spinning
- Open end spinning or rotor spinning
- Friction spinning
- Self twist spinning
- Electrostatic spinning
- Vortex spinning
- Air-jet spinning
- Twist less spinning (Twilo)
Short Staple Spinning
Machines used in short-staple spinning