Warp knitting is the sequential formation and interlinking of loops in an axial direction on a lateral array of needles with at least one separate thread being supplied to each needle. The loops are joined together in a width-wise direction by moving the threads back and forth between adjacent needles.
Warp Knit Structure
A warp knitted structure is made up of two parts. The first is the stitch itself, which is formed by wrapping the yarn around the needle and drawing it through the previously knitted loop. This wrapping of the yarn is called an overlap. The diagram shows the path taken by the eyelet of one yarn guide traveling through the needle line, making a lateral overlap (shog) and making a return swing. This movement wraps the yarn around the needle ready for the knock-over displacement.
The second part of stitch formation is the length of yarn linking together the stitches and this is termed the under lap, which is formed by the lateral movement of the yarns across the needles.
The length of the under lap is defined in terms of needle spaces. The longer the underlap, the more it lies at right angles to the fabric length axis. The longer the underlap for a given warp the greater the increase in lateral fabric stability,conversely a shorter under lap reduces the width-wise stability and strength and increases the lengthways stability of the fabric.
The length of the underlap also influences the fabric weight. When knitting with a longer underlap, more yarn has to be supplied to the knitting needles. The underlap crosses and covers more wales on its way, with the result that the fabric becomes heavier, thicker and denser. Since the underlap is connected to the root of the stitch,it causes a lateral displacement in the root of the stitch due to the warp tension. The reciprocating movements of the yarn, therefore, cause the stitch of each knitted course to incline in the same direction, alternately to the left and to the right.
In order to control both the lateral and longitudinal properties, as well as to produce an improved fabric appearance with erect loops, a second set of yarns is usually employed. The second set is usually moved in the opposite direction to the first in order to help balance the lateral forces on the needles. The length of the underlap need not necessarily be the same for both sets of yarns.