Cellulose is the substance that makes up most of a plant's cell walls. Since it is made by all plants, it is probably the most abundant organic compound on Earth.Many varieties of plant fibres exist such as hairs (cotton, kapok), fibre-sheafs of dicoltylic plants or vessel-sheafs of monocotylic plants (e.g. flax, hemp, jute and ramie), and hard fibres (sisal,henequen and coir), not to mention the large number of fibres obtained from trees. Byproducts of agricultural crops are being considered as
The protein fibres are formed by natural animal sources through condensation of a-amino acids to form repeating polyamide units with various substituent on the a-carbon atom. In general, protein fibres are fibres of moderate strength, resiliency, and elasticity. They have excellent moisture absorbency and transport characteristics. They do not build up static charge. Example of some these fibres are Wool, Silk, Mohair, Cashmere etc.
A number of fibres exist that are derived from natural mineral sources or are manufactured from inorganic and mineral salts. These fibres are predominantly derivatives of silica (Si02) or other metal oxides.
Man-made fibres are fibres in which either the basic chemical units have been formed by chemical synthesis followed by fibre formation or the polymers from natural sources have been dissolved and regenerated after passage through a spinneret to form fibres. These fibre came to success when the researchers obtained a product by condensation of molecules presenting two reactive aminic groups with molecules characterised by two carboxylic reactive groups.
Manmade fibers are manufactured using different mechanical and chemical processes for example Synthetic fibers from thermoplastics are produced by extruding the molten plastic through extrusion dies (spinnerets) into a stream of cold air that cools and solidifies the plastic. (The
operation is referred to as melt spinning.)