Plain weave is the most common and tightest of basic weave structures in which the filling threads pass over and under successive warp threads and repeat the same pattern with alternate threads in the following row, producing a chequered surface. They do not ravel easily but tend to wrinkle and have less absorbency than other weaves. The plain weave is variously known as ?calico? or ?tabby? weave. It is the simplest of all weaves having a repeat size of 2.
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The process of producing a fabric by interlacing warp and weft threads is known as weaving. The machine used for weaving is known as weaving machine or loom. Weaving is an art that has been practiced for thousands of years. The earliest application of weaving dates back to the Egyptian civilization. In order to interlace wrap and weft threads to produce a fabric, the basic mechanisms necessary on any type of looms are Primary, Secondary and Auxiliary mechanisms.
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Weaving is the process of making fabrics by interlacing the threads lengthwise and width wise commonly known as warp and weft in a regular order. The operation is performed in a machine called a loom. Two sets of yarns are interlaced, almost always at right angles to each other. One, called the warp, runs lengthwise in the loom; the other, called the filling, weft or woof, runs crosswise. The raising and lowering sequence of warp threads in various sequences gives many possible weave structures.
A draft indicates the number of heald shafts used to produce a given design and the order is which warp ends are threaded through the heald eyes of the heald shaft. The principle of drafting (i.e. putting of ends on different healed shafts) is that ends which work in different order require separate heald shafts. To keep matters simple, we can also say that the ends that work alike are put on the same heald shaft.