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The Complete Guide to Hydrostatic Head Test

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For more information on textile testing methods/standards
or textile testing machines, contact us:
What’s App: +86 180 2511 4082
Tel: +86 769 2329 4842
Fax: +86 769 2329 4860
Email: sales@tes.hk

What is the Hydrostatic Head Test?

The Hydrostatic Head Test is a vital procedure that is used to assess the water resistance capability of materials and fabric frequently employed in exterior gears consisting of tents, rain jackets, backpacks, and so more. Of course, it measures the pressure at which water penetrates through the materials. Throughout the test, a sample of the material is fixed over a cylinder and forming a seal. Then, water is gradually applied to the surface of the fabric or material until the droplets start to seep through. And someone also calls it a waterproof rating test or fabric waterproofing test.

Well, the height of the water column, measured in millimeters wherein this occurs, indicates the material’s waterproofing capability. A higher hydrostatic head rating indicates better water resistance. This test is crucial for making sure that products can stand in different weather conditions and then keep the users dry and comfortable during outdoor activities.

fabric water-proof-test

Why do the Hydrostatic Head Pressure Test?

The hydrostatic head pressure test is conducted for various crucial reasons that consist of;

  • Quality Assurance

Manufacturers use this test to make sure that their products meet special standards of water resistance. Via exposing materials to hydrostatic pressure, they can easily assess their suitability for exact applications, as like as exterior gear, rainwear, and construction materials.

  • Performance Evaluation

Comprehending a material hydrostatic head rating aids consumers in assessing its performance in real-world circumstances. For example, a tent with a more hydrostatic head rating is more likely to offer protection over heavy rain than one with a lower rating.

  • Product Development

Manufacturers are using the result of hydrostatic head tests over the product development phase in order to enhance the water resistance of their materials. They are usually involved with experimenting with various fabric compositions, coating, and construction techniques to improve performance.

  • Compliance

Various industries have standards and regulations when it comes to water resistance. Yes, the product must meet these standards to be solid in the specific markets. Leading hydrostatic head tests ensure compliance with relevant certifications and regulations that give manufacturers confidence in their product marketability and legality.

  • Consumer Confidence

Offering hydrostatic head ratings on product labels or specifications improves consumer confidence. It offers consumers clear information about the water resistance capabilities of the product. It highly aids them to make informed decisions regarding their precise needs and preferences.

In addition, the hydrostatic head pressure examination is a vital tool for both consumers and manufacturers make ensure product quality, performance, and compliance with various industry standards.

What is the application of the hydrostatic head test? What kind of textiles need to do this test?

The hydrostatic head test is an imperative process utilized in numerous industries in order to evaluate the water resistance of textiles and materials. Its packages are diverse, spanning from outdoor gear and protecting apparel to medical textiles and construction materials. This test is instrumental in ensuring product quality, overall performance, and compliance with business requirements. Let’s delve deeper into every utility and the varieties of textiles that undergo hydrostatic head testing.

  • Outdoor gear and clothing

Outdoor gear and clothing regularly face harsh weather conditions, necessitating excessive water resistance. Tents, for instance, require fabrics that can resist heavy rainfall to keep occupants dry. The hydrostatic head test facilitates manufacturers to decide the waterproofing capability of tent substances. Similarly, rainwear and outerwear such as jackets and pants want to repel water to guard wearers against moisture at some stage in outside activities. Backpacks and luggage also go through hydrostatic head testing to make certain they are able to resist rain and moisture infiltration, safeguarding the contents within.

  • water proof tents tests
  • Protective clothing

Industries like construction, agriculture, and healthcare depend upon protecting apparel to keep workers secure and at ease. Workwear needs to withstand water penetration to keep the wearer comfortable and safe in moist environments. Medical textiles, along with surgical gowns and drapes, require a certain degree of water resistance to prevent contamination from fluids in the course of methods. Hydrostatic head testing ensures that defensive clothing meets those requirements.

  • Sports and recreation

Sports and recreation often take place outdoors, exposing participants to various weather conditions. Athletic garb, together with sports clothing and swimming gear, may also undergo hydrostatic head testing to make certain they are able to resist wet conditions. This is critical for activities like trekking, going for walks, cycling, and swimming, in which moisture resistance is crucial for overall performance and luxury.

  • OutdoorClothing-water-proof-test
  • Construction materials

Materials utilized in construction, consisting of roofing membranes, waterproofing membranes, and tarpaulins, need to prevent water ingress into buildings and construction sites. Roofing membranes and underlays go through hydrostatic head testing to evaluate their potential to face up to water penetration. Tarpaulins and production covers also require water resistance to protect materials and devices from rain and moisture.

  • Automotive Textiles

Fabrics utilized in automobile applications, inclusive of vehicle covers and convertible tops, need to repel water to defend cars from environmental factors. Cars cover shield vehicles from rain, snow, and diverse weather circumstances; at the same time, convertible tops require water resistance to stop leakage into the car indoors throughout rainfall.


The hydrostatic head test plays a vital position in ensuring the water resistance of textiles and substances across numerous industries. By subjecting materials to hydrostatic pressure, manufacturers can verify their suitability for specific programs and environments. This test not only guarantees product quality and overall performance but also helps in compliance with industry standards and policies, ultimately enhancing purchaser satisfaction and safety.

What is the Difference Between a Hydrostatic Test and a Pressure Test? 

The terms hydrostatic test and pressure test are often used interchangeably, but they discuss slightly distinctive methods with wonderful functions and applications.

Hydrostatic test

  • Definition: The hydrostatic test is a method used to assess the structural integrity and leak-tightness of a vessel or factor by subjecting it to fluid pressure.
  • Process: During a hydrostatic test, the vessel or component is packed with a liquid, generally water, and pressurized to a predetermined stage. The stress is maintained for a special length at some stage in which inspectors display for leaks or deformations.
  • Applications: Hydrostatic tests are usually used in industries that include oil and fuel, creation, plumbing, and manufacturing. They are carried out to various devices and systems, including pipelines, strain vessels, storage tanks, boilers, and plumbing systems.
  • Purposes: The number one motive of a hydrostatic test is to verify the integrity of the gadget or form underneath pressure and ensure it may adequately contain the intended fluid besides leakage or failure.

hydrostatic head test

Pressure Test:

  • Definition: A pressure test, in a broader feel, refers to any test that assesses the overall performance or integrity of an element under strain. It encompasses numerous strategies, consisting of hydrostatic testing.
  • Procedure: Pressure tests can also contain exclusive techniques depending on the unique application and necessities. Except hydrostatic testing, pressure tests can include pneumatic testing, where compressed air or gas is used in preference to liquid.
  • Application: Thus, pressure tests are used across several industries for one-of-a-kind purposes. Apart from hydrostatic test programs, stress exams can encompass pneumatic testing of pneumatic systems, air pressure trying out of ductwork, or hydraulic tests of hydraulic systems.
  • Reasons: Like hydrostatic assessments, the purpose of a pressure test is to ensure the structural integrity, safety, and performance of additives or systems beneath stress. They assist become aware of leaks, weaknesses, or defects that would compromise the operation or protection of the gadget.

Even as both hydrostatic tests and pressure assessments involve subjecting components to pressure, the distinction lies in the specific method and medium used (liquid for hydrostatic assessments, and liquid or gasoline for pressure tests), as well as the wider scope of pressure test encompassing numerous techniques beyond the hydrostatic test. Both tests are integral for verifying the integrity and reliability of equipment and structures in an extensive variety of industries.

What are the Test Standards for the Hydrostatic Head Test?

The hydrostatic head test is a standardized procedure used to assess the water resistance of textiles and materials. Several test standards govern the execution of hydrostatic head testing, ensuring consistency, accuracy, and reliability throughout distinctive industries and applications. A number of the maximum usually referenced test standards (also known as waterproof testing standards)include:

  • ISO 811: This International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standard identifies the technique for determining the resistance of fabric to water penetration using a hydrostatic pressure test. It outlines the apparatus, sample preparation, test procedure, and calculation approach for figuring out the hydrostatic head score of textiles.

  • ASTM D751:Developed by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), this widely covers the determination of hydrostatic resistance of fabrics coated with rubber or plastics. It gives guidelines for pattern preparation, test conditions, and calculation approaches to evaluate the waterproofing properties of substances utilized in rainwear, tents, and different outdoor equipment.

  • BS EN 20811 / ISO 811:This European standard, additionally followed through ISO, specifies a hydrostatic pressure test technique for assessing the water resistance of fabrics. It presents exact commands for undertaking the test, including sample conditioning, apparatus setup, test process, and calculation of hydrostatic head values.

  • AATCC Test Method 127: It is published by the American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists (AATCC); this technique outlines the process for determining the resistance of a fabric to water penetration with the use of a hydrostatic pressure test. It covers pattern instruction, test circumstances, and calculation strategies for determining the hydrostatic head rating of textiles.


  • IS L 1092:This Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS) states the approach for determining the resistance of textiles to water penetration underneath hydrostatic pressure. It provides guidelines for sample preparation, test conditions, and calculation techniques to assess the waterproofing belongings of fabric used in varied applications.

  • EN 20811:This European standard agrees the test method for defining the resistance of a material to water penetration is done by the custom of a hydrostatic strain test. It includes pattern practice, device setup, test method, and intention methods for defining the hydrostatic head rating of fabrics.

These test requirements ensure consistency and correctness in hydrostatic head testing throughout unusual laboratories and industries. They bring separate methods and pointers for achieving the test, confirming that materials meet exact overall performance supplies for water resistance. Adherence to those supplies permits producers to assess the quality and appropriateness of their products for varied applications, from outside gear and protecting garb to medical textiles and production materials. Additionally, compliance with those requirements assures that products meet supervisory supplies and consumer expectations for performance and strength.

 How to Operate the Hydrostatic Head Test? 

Running a hydrostatic head test involves numerous steps to confirm precise and steady results. Here is a normal definition of the test method:

Preparation of equipment and resources

  • Set up the hydrostatic head tester reliably with the manufacturer’s commands. This usually entails collecting the testing tools, comprehensive of the test chamber, pressure gauge, and fastening mechanism.
  • Make sure that the tool is fresh and free from any debris or pollutants that would disturb the test results.
  • Make the test samples by decreasing them to the desired size and structure, after the specs outlined within the pertinent test regular.

hydrostatic head tester

Calibration of device:

  • Before leading the test, calibrate the pressure gauge or sensor to ensure sure correct capacities of hydrostatic pressure.
  • Use a standardization standard or reference fabric with a stared hydrostatic head rating to verify the correctness of the device.

Test manner:

  • Place the prepared test sample steadily over the opening of the test chamber; make sure a dressed seal protects you from water leakage.
  • Fill the test chamber with distilled water or other suitable testing fluid, guaranteeing that the taster is fully underwater.
  • Increasingly raise the pressure in the test chamber at a persistent value, characteristically expressed in units of pressure per minute, until water diffusion is determined.
  • Nonstop monitors the pressure gauge or sensor all over the test to document the pressure at which water initiates to penetrate the fabric.
  • As soon as water diffusion occurs, record the height of the water column above the material sample. This size signifies the hydrostatic head score of the material.

Data Analysis and Reporting:

  • Calculate the hydrostatic head score test at the sample using the recorded pressure and the density of the testing fluid.
  • Evaluate the received hydrostatic head score with the overall performance necessities specific within the applicable take a look at fashionable or product specs.
  • Generate a test file documenting the test procedure, system calibration, test effects, and any relevant observations or deviations from the usual procedure.
  • Encompass the calculated hydrostatic head rating alongside any other pertinent facts, together with sample identification, testing conditions, and date of testing.

waterproof fabric test

Quality Control and Assurance:

  • Enforce best management measures to ensure the accuracy and repeatability of test effects.
  • Periodically verify and recalibrate the testing system to maintain accuracy and consistency.
  • Conduct frequent proficiency tests or assessments and inter-laboratory comparisons to validate the reliability of the testing strategies and results.

By following these steps and adhering to the relevant test standards, operators can behavior hydrostatic head tests efficaciously to assess the water resistance of textiles and materials as it should be. This guarantees that products meet performance requirements and quality standards for diverse applications, from outside tools and garb to medical textiles and construction materials.

 How to Calculate the Hydrostatic Head Pressure?

To calculate the hydrostatic head pressure, you want to degree the peak of the water column above the material pattern while water penetration occurs at some point of the hydrostatic head test. Then, you operate this measurement alongside the density of the testing fluid to determine the hydrostatic head pressure. Right here’s the way to calculate it:

Measure the height: Document the peak of the water column above the cloth sample in the meantime whilst water penetration is observed. This dimension is normally in millimeters (mm) and represents the distance from the floor of the fabric to the water level within the test chamber.

Convert Units (if fundamental):

  1. Make sure that each measurement is in the same units.
  2. If the peak measurement is in millimeters, depart it as is.
  3. If it is in every other unit, along with inches or centimeters, convert it to millimeters for consistency.

Decide the Density of Testing Fluid: identify the density of the testing fluid used within the hydrostatic head test. This information is generally furnished within the test standard or can be discovered in reference materials. The density is generally expressed in kilograms per cubic meter (kg/m³).

Calculate Hydrostatic Head Pressure: Use the following method to calculate the hydrostatic head pressure:

Hydrostatic Head Pressure=Height of Water Column × Density of Testing Fluid × Acceleration Due to Gravity

  • Height of Water Column: The measurement you recorded in step 1, expressed in millimeters (mm).
  • The density of Testing Fluid: The density of the fluid used in the test, expressed in kilograms consistent with cubic meters (kg/m³).
  • Acceleration Due to GravityThe same old acceleration because of gravity, that’s about 9.81 m/s29.81m/s2.

Perform Calculation: Plug in the values into the components and perform the calculation to decide the hydrostatic head pressure. The result will be expressed in devices of pressure, together with Pascals (Pa) or millimeters of water column (mmWC). You can also call it hydrostatic head rating.

Interpret results: As soon as you have calculated the hydrostatic head strain, examine it to performance necessities special in the applicable test well-known or product specs. This rating shows the material’s capability to withstand water penetration under pressure, with higher values indicating extra water resistance.

By following those steps, you could calculate the hydrostatic head strain, imparting treasured facts approximately the water resistance of textiles and materials examined by the usage of the hydrostatic head method. And get the waterproof level of materials.

How to Evaluate the Test Results of Hydrostatic Water Tests?

To assess the waterproof ratings tests efficiently, consider the subsequent steps:

  • Evaluate with standards

Test with the applicable test standards or product specs to decide the appropriate variety or minimum requirements for hydrostatic head pressure. This test can help investigate whether the test results meet the overall performance standards set forth using industry requirements or regulatory bodies.

  • Examine performance requirements

Consider the intended application and environmental situations the fabric will encounter. Decide whether the received hydrostatic head pressure aligns with the overall performance necessities for the particular use case. For example, outdoor tools may additionally require better hydrostatic head rankings to withstand heavy rainfall in comparison to indoor textiles.

  • Consider end-user needs

Take into consideration the expectancies and preferences of end customers. Check whether or not the hydrostatic head pressure performed via the fabric meets the extent of water resistance preferred by clients. Perception of consumer requirements makes sure that the product meets market needs and offers quality overall performance.

  • Compare Reliability

Examine the reliability and repeatability of test results. Make sure that the test technique was once carried out as it should be and constantly following the suggestions outlined in the test standard. Verify the calibration of equipment and adherence to quality manipulation measures to ensure the reliability of the acquired hydrostatic head pressure.

  • Consider other factors

Apprehend that hydrostatic head pressure is one issue of water resistance and might not provide a complete photo on its own. Think about different elements consisting of fabric production, surface treatments, and seam integrity, which also can affect the fabric’s standard water resistance.

  • Report results

Record the test results, including the calculated hydrostatic head pressure, testing conditions, and any applicable observations or deviations from the same old system. Keep particular information for future reference, quality warranty, and compliance functions.

By following these steps, you could correctly evaluate the test results of hydrostatic pressure checks, making sure that materials meet performance requirements and fulfill cease-person desires for water resistance in numerous applications.

What is a good waterproof rating? Clothing rated between 5,000 mm and 10,000 mm (10k) is a good choice for riders who spend long days out and ski or snowboard in any weather conditions. Avid skiers and snowboarders, especially those in wetter climates, should look for waterproof ratings in the 10,000 mm to 20,000 mm range or better.

What is the average price of a hydrostatic head tester? How to choose the hydrostatic head tester manufacturer? 

The common price of the testing can depend on various factors such as model, brand, specification, and function. Normally, basic fashions designed for laboratory or small-scale testing may additionally vary from a few thousand dollars to around $10,000. More advanced and automated testers with better throughput capacity and further features can price upwards of $20,000 to $50,000 or more.

what is a good waterproof rating

While selecting a hydrostatic head tester producer, consider the subsequent elements:

  • Popularity and Experience

Search for manufacturers with strong popularity and substantial experience in designing and manufacturing testing systems. Examine purchaser reviews, testimonials, and case studies to analyze their track record and client satisfaction.

  • Quality and Reliability

Prioritize producers known for producing high-quality, reliable testing equipment. Test for certifications, standards compliance, and quality warranty strategies to ensure the sturdiness and accuracy of the tester.

  • Features and specifications

You have to compare the functions and specifications provided by special manufacturers to discover a hydrostatic head tester that meets your precise testing requirements. Consider on factors together with trying out ability, pressure variety, automation skills, and software combination.

  • Support and Service

Pick out a manufacturer that gives superb customer support, technical assistance, and an after-income provider. Make certain they offer training, upkeep, and repair services to keep your tester walking smoothly.

  • Price and value

Examine expenses, features, and fee propositions from unique manufacturers to find the best fit for your price range and testing needs. Think about long-term expenses, inclusive of renovation and improvements, when evaluating the overall cost of the hydrostatic head tester.

The hydrostatic head test is a fundamental process for comparing the water resistance of textiles and materials across numerous industries. By following standardized test strategies, selecting reliable systems, and decoding results efficaciously, manufacturers can ensure product quality, compliance, and customer pride in various applications.

For more information on textile testing methods/standards
or textile testing machines, contact us:
What’s App: +86 180 2511 4082
Tel: +86 769 2329 4842
Fax: +86 769 2329 4860
Email: sales@tes.hk

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