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A kaleidoscope of Indian Textile Products with Traditional and Cultural Imprints

Traditional textile products from different parts of India

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Eасh stаte оf Indiа disрlаys а vаriety оf designs, рrоduсing distinсt textiles аnd сrаfts indigenоus tо the regiоn. Thus trаditiоnаl Indiаn textiles саn be сlаssified ассоrding tо the regiоn оf рrоduсtiоn. Аnоther сlаssifiсаtiоn оf Indiаn textiles саn be bаsed оn the teсhnique оf рrоduсtiоn.

Indiа hаs оne оf the finest textile trаditiоns in the wоrld with resрeсt tо dyeing, weаving аnd surfасe embellishment. The riсhness оf its сrаfts is evident in the exсаvаted findings оf Hаrарра аnd Mоhenjо-Dаrо in the Indus Vаlley, whiсh саn be dаted bасk tо 5000 yeаrs. Indiаn textile history hаs have been lаyered and enriсhed by nuаnсes of migrаtоry weаvers, fоreign invasions аnd religiоus influenсes. The wide range of design and weave, specific to the region of their origin, are masterpieces enhanced by the skills of the раrtiсulаr сrаftsmen and their trаditiоn. The сrаfts thrived on the exрlоrаtiоn аnd ingenuity of the сrаfts рeорle and their knоwledge оf lосаlly available mаteriаl.

The jоurney оf Indiаn аrtisаns frоm rоyаl раtrоnаge tо а life оf fоrсed wоrkers under the British rule wаs nоt а deterrent fоr the evоlutiоn оf fаntаstiс weаves аnd designs. The freedоm mоvement under Gаndhi’s leаdershiр gаve imроrtаnсe tо hаnd sрinning аnd hаnd weаving оf Khаdi аnd henсe рrоvided роlitiсаl, eсоnоmiс аnd mоrаl аrguments аrоund сlоth knоwn аs ‘swаdeshi’.

Indiа’s exрertise in vegetаble dye dаtes bасk tо аnсient times, аs the remnаnts оf mаdder-dyed fаbriсs, рrinted in Gujаrаt were fоund in eаrly Egyрtiаn exсаvаtiоns in Fоstаt. The Indiаn dyer’s exрertise wаs knоwn wоrldwide, fоr their mаstery оf the сrаft аnd their skill wаs unраrаlleled in соlоuring textiles using nаturаl mаteriаl. Араrt frоm sоme literаry sоurсes, the visuаl evidenсe оf exрertise in dyeing is witnessed in the 6th оr 7th сentury dаted fresсо раintings оf Аjаntа Саves оf Аurаngаbаd in Mаhаrаshtrа. The exquisite аnd intriсаte resist-dyed ikаts аnd tie-dyed fаbriсs in the аttires оf рeорle, аs раinted in the fresсоes аre evident оf рrоfiсient dyeing skills оf сrаftsmen.

Eасh stаte оf Indiа disрlаys а vаriety оf designs, рrоduсing distinсt textiles аnd сrаfts indigenоus tо the regiоn. Thus trаditiоnаl Indiаn textiles саn be сlаssified ассоrding tо the regiоn оf рrоduсtiоn. Аnоther сlаssifiсаtiоn оf Indiаn textiles саn be bаsed оn the teсhnique оf рrоduсtiоn.

The textbооk ‘Trаditiоnаl Indiаn Textiles’ is а соmрilаtiоn оf the different trаditiоnаl textiles оf Indiа, саtegоrized оn the bаsis оf the рrоduсtiоn teсhnique, nаmely Embrоidered, Resist Dyed, Рrinted аnd Hаnd-wоven textiles. The textbооk intrоduсes the students tо the riсh textile trаditiоns оf Indiа.

Embroidered Textiles of India

Embroidery or the art of needlework resulted from the passion of womenfolk to express their creativity and ornament their apparel and household textiles. Primarily a feminine art, young girls learned the craft from their mothers and older women in the family. The artistic expressions of the embroiderer are skillfully created on fabric with a simple tool, needle or hook needle known as awl or tambour.

The art of embroidery dates back to as early as the Indus Valley civilization. Bronze and copper awls excavated in Harappa confirm that embroidery was a practiced craft in ancient times. Though none of the embroidered samples exist from primitive times, travelogues of foreign visitors to India mention the prevalence of ornamented textiles in Indian kingdoms. Megasthenes, a Greek traveler during the Mauryan period in the 4th century BC has referred to elaborate gold patterning on robes of royalty, possibly using embroidery as a technique for fabric decoration. Another traveler from the 13th century, Marco Polo has described the intricately embroidered textiles from Eastern and Western India. The oldest existing embroidered pieces that are available for reference are from the 16th century AD, which includes textiles exported to Europe or articles prepared for royalty.

Different embroidery styles have developed regionally in India that have a distinct identity of their own. Cotton, silk, woolen thread, or gold/silver is used to embroider on various media, from cotton, silk, woolen fabric to velvet and leather. Besides thread, pieces of fabric, beads, mirrors, shells, coins, precious stones, and sequins are also used for embellishing the fabric. With the passage of time, a variety of embroidery designs have been created by artisans from their own imagination.

The Indian embroideries can be classified on the basis of the technique of production or as per the region of production.

Indian embroideries are classified on the basis of region as follows:

  1. Northern India
    1. Kashida from Kashmir
    2. Phulkari from Punjab
    3. Chamba Rumal from Himachal Pradesh
  2. Western India
    1. Embroidery from Gujrat
    2. Parsi embroidery
  3. Central India
    1. Chikankari from Uttar Pradesh
    2. Phool Patti ka Kaam from Uttar Pradesh
    3. Zardozi from Uttar Pradesh
  4. Southern India
    1. Kasuti from Karnataka
    2. Lambadi embroidery from Andhra Pradesh
  5. Eastern India
    1. Kantha from West Bengal
    2. Sujani from Bihar
    3. Pipli appliqué from Orissa


Sozni style of embroidery on shawl
Kashmiri couching using zari thread on shawl

Zalakdozi style of embroidery

Region: Kashida is an embroidery style from Kashmir that is practiced by menfolk of the region. The intricate needlework is inspired by the charming natural surroundings of Kashmir.

Technique: The base material for Kashida is cotton, wool, or silk in a variety of colors like white, blue, yellow, purple, red, green, and black. The embroidery threads used to execute Kashida are wool, silk, or cotton depending on the product to be embroidered. The main stitches employed for Kashida are darning stitch, stem stitch, satin stitch, and chain stitch.

Motifs: The motifs used in Kashida depict the natural elements which include the rich flora and fauna of the region of Kashmir. Typical motifs are birds like a magpie, kingfisher; flowers, butterflies, maple leaves, almonds, cherries, grapes, and plums. A popular motif seen on embroidered shawls is derived from the cypress cone.

Style of Embroidery: There are three styles of embroidery followed in Kashmir. Sozni is intricate embroidery that uses stitches like a fly stitch, stem stitch, and darning stitch. The aari style, also called Zalakdozi employs hook or aari to fill in motifs with chain stitch. In Kashmiri couching, zari thread is laid on the fabric along with a pattern and is held in place with another.

End-Use: Kashmiri embroidery is primarily done on shawls and regional garments like phiran. Chain stitch embroidery is done on woolen floor rugs called Gabbas and Namdas. Nowadays, Kashida is also used to decorate household items like bed covers, cushion covers, lampshades, bags, and other accessories.


Close view of Bagh, fully embroidered wrap

Region: Phulkari is an embroidery style that originated in Punjab. It is used and embroidered in different parts of Punjab namely Jalandhar, Amritsar, Kapurthala, Hoshiarpur, Ludhiana, Ferozepur, Bhatinda, and Patiala.

The earliest available article of phulkari embroidery is a rumal embroidered during the 15th century by Bibi Nanaki, sister of Guru Nanak Dev. The needlework is widely practiced by the women of Punjab and holds significance in a life of a woman, from her marriage till her final abode to heaven.

Technique: The base material to execute Phulkari is handspun and handwoven Khaddar that is dyed in red, rust, brown, blue, and darker shades. Soft untwisted silk thread ‘Pat’ is used for embroidery. The colors of the thread are red, green, golden yellow, orange, blue, etc. The basic stitch employed for Phulkari is the darning stitch, which is done from the reverse side of the fabric. The stitches follow the weave and a beautiful effect is created on the fabric by changing the direction of the stitches. For outlining motifs and borders, stem, chain, and herringbone stitches are sometimes used.

Motifs: The motifs used in Phulkari are inspired by objects of everyday use like a rolling pin, swords, flowers, vegetables, birds, animals, etc. They are generally geometrical and stylized. Usually, one motif is left unembroidered or is embroidered in an offbeat color. This motif is called ‘nazarbuti’ which is considered to ward off the evil eye.

Style of Embroidery: The two embroidery styles prevalent in Punjab are Bagh and Phulkari. Bagh is a fully embroidered wrap that is used for special occasions whereas Phulkari is simple and lightly embroidered for everyday use.

End-Use: Phulkari is an important part of the bridal trousseau and is worn as a veil or wrap by women on special occasions like Karva Chauth, a festival celebrated in North India for the longevity of husbands. A specific pattern of Phulkari is also used as a canopy on religious occasions.

Presently, Phulkari is being done on bed linen and apparel like tops, tunics, and skirts.

Chamba Rumal

Chamba Rumal


Region: Chamba Rumal, an embroidery from Himachal Pradesh dates back to the 15th century. There is a mention of this embroidery being practiced in Pathankot, Chamba, and other remote villages of Himachal Pradesh in Buddhist Literature and the Jataka Tales. Chamba was known for the most picturesque needlework, which the Romans described as ‘needle painting’.

Technique: The embroidery is executed on two types of unbleached cotton cloth: lightweight, delicate muslin or handspun, hand-woven, coarser khaddar. Untwisted, dyed silk threads ‘Pat’ in bright colors like red, yellow, green, blue, crimson, and purple are used for the embroidery.

The embroidery uses double satin stitch which simultaneously fills in the motif on both sides of the fabric, making it reversible.

Motifs: The motifs used are inspired by Pahari paintings depicting Lord Krishna and his playful antics. The embroidery also depicts the flora and fauna of the Himalayan region. Typical motifs include tiger, goat, deer, horse, peacock, parrot; flowers, shrubs and plants, willow and cypress trees; and musical instruments like sitar, tabla, veena, tanpura, etc.

Style of Embroidery: The embroidery is executed on a square piece of cloth. The motifs are arranged on the rumal in order to portray scenes from Lord Krishna’s life. Some of the popular themes include Rasamandala, Rukmini haran and Kaliya daman. There are floral borders on all four sides of the rumal.

End-Use: Traditionally the rumal was used as a cover for food prasad offered to gods and goddesses. It was also a custom to gift embroidered rumors at the time of weddings.

Nowadays, the Chamba embroidery is done on fabrics like silk, polyester, or terrycloth and made into blouses, caps, slippers, cushions covers, etc. Embroidered silk wall hangings are also exported from Himachal Pradesh.

Embroidery from Gujarat

Embroidery from Gujarat

Region: The embroidery of Gujarat is colorful and vibrant practiced by different communities of the state. The most popular embroidery styles originate from the Kutch and Kathiawar region of Gujarat.

Technique: The embroidery is done with multi-colored threads, usually cotton or silk embroidery threads. Different stitches are used depending on the style of embroidery, namely chain stitch, herringbone stitch, satin stitch, interlace stitch, buttonhole stitch, and darning stitch. There is also the use of mirrors that are fixed on the fabric with an embroidery stitch.

Another technique used in Gujarat is appliqué where scraps of fabric are cut into a form and stitched onto the base fabric.

Motifs: The motifs used in Gujarati embroidery are mostly taken from flora and fauna. Some typical motifs are flowers, creepers, trees, peacocks, parrots, and elephants. Besides flowers and animals, human figures in different poses like dancing women and men are also seen in some styles of Gujarati embroidery.

Style of Embroidery: There are different embroidery styles carried out by tribal communities of Gujarat. Some of the styles are as follows:

  • Mochi Bharat: The embroidery style from Kutch is practiced by the mochis of The ari or the hook is used to embroider designs with chain stitch.
  • Soof Bharat: The embroidery is executed with untwisted silk floss and geometric patterns are created using the darning stitch.
  • Abhla Bharat: The embroidery style is defined by the use of mirror work along with other embroidery stitches to create designs on fabric.
  • Moti Bharat: The craft is characterized by the use of white and colored beads that are connected with thread to develop colorful motifs on a white background of beads.

Kachcho Bharat: The embroidery uses an interlace stitch called sindhi taropa. The motifs are mainly geometrical comprising of squares, hexagons, and lozen

End-Use: A range of embroidered articles are produced in various regions of Gujarat. Some examples are quilts, doorway hangings, pouches, bags, ghagra, choli, wedding costumes, animal trappings, etc.

Parsi Embroidery

Parsi embroidery depicting birds and floral motifs


Region: As the name suggests, Parsi embroidery is practiced by the Parsi community living in Mumbai. They are believed to be descendants of Persian Zoroastrians, who migrated to India around the 8th century. The Parsi embroidery is an interesting mix of eastern and western cultures, imbibing from Persian, Chinese, Indian, and European influences.

Technique: The base material for Parsi embroidery is silk fabric in bright red, purple, blue, magenta, and black color. The embroidery is done with silk threads in light pastel colors like off-white, pink, and cream. The basic stitch used in Parsi embroidery in satin stitch and its variations to fill-in motifs (Pic. 1.12). Besides the satin stitch, French knots are used that impart texture to the fabric, resembling small beads fixed on the fabric.

Motifs: The motifs are derived from Persian, Chinese, Indian, and European cultures. The range of motifs from nature includes flowers like chrysanthemum, peony, lily, and lotus; foliage like cherry, weeping willow, and pine; birds like crane and peacock, and butterflies (Pic. 1.13). Other important motifs are inspired by Chinese architecture and the portrayal of Chinese human figures and scenes from daily life.

Style of Embroidery: The Parsi gara is an embroidered sari that has heavily embellished borders on all its four sides.

End-Use: The Parsi embroidery is done on garas (sari) and jhablas. A time-consuming embroidery, the richly embroidered Parsi garas are regarded as heirlooms.

Though embroidery is becoming extinct, attempts are being made to revive the craft and produce fast-selling products like scarves, bags, and other accessories.


Region: Chikankari is whitework embroidery practiced in Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh. It is believed that Nur Jahan, wife of Mughal emperor Jahangir embroidered a cap for her husband, and hence popularized this craft of white on white embroidery.

Technique: The embroidery is done on fine white cotton fabric with untwisted white cotton or silk thread. There are three types of stitches used in chikankari: flat stitches like stem stitch and herringbone stitch raised stitches like bullion and French knots and pulled thread work or jali.

Motifs: The motifs are inspired by nature’s flora including flowers, creepers and lace-like


Style of Embroidery: A common style present in each piece of Chikankari is the shadow work. To create the light and shade effect, herringbone stitch is executed from the wrong side of the fabric which creates a shadow of lighter color on the right side and at the same imparts an outline to the motif.

End-Use: Traditionally the embroidery was done mainly for male garments such as kurta, bandi, choga etc. for summer wear.

Presently Chikankari is being explored for apparel as well as home products on different fabrics like crepe silks, chiffons, georgettes, and cotton-polyester blends. Besides the traditional white-on-white embroidery, the contemporary chikankari has a wider color palette, from pastels to bright colors.

Contemporary chikankari

Phool Patti ka Kaam

Choti Patti ka Kaam


Region: Phool Patti ka Kaam is traditional appliqué style embroidery practiced in Uttar Pradesh, chiefly Aligarh and Rampur. The embroidery is executed by Muslim women, who work from their homes. The craft gained importance during the Mughul period.

Technique: The appliqué is done on fine white cotton fabric or organdy. Traditionally appliqué is done in two ways. In one form ‘Badi Patti ka Kaam’ small pieces of white fabric cut into floral forms are stitched onto the white fabric, creating the light and shade effect. The detailing of the motifs is done with a stem stitch. In the other ‘Choti Patti ka Kaam’, small pieces of cloth are folded into diamond shapes and used as petals or leaves in the motifs, along with stem stitch work.

Motifs: As the name suggests, the motifs used in Phool Patti ka Kaam are flowers and leaves. The floral forms are geometric in nature.

Style of Embroidery: There are two styles of Phool Patti ka Kaam according to the size of the motifs appliquéd on the fabric. The Badi-patti style uses bigger floral forms for appliqué whereas in Choti-patti style very small diamond shapes are applied to the fabric.

End-Use: Phool Patti ka Kaam was traditionally done on dupattas and saris. Nowadays the appliqué is also done on home furnishings like curtains, table linen, and cushion covers using other colors besides white.


Intricate zardozi on velvet
Intricate zardozi on velvet


Region: Zardozi, the gold and silver embroidery is practiced in Lucknow, Agra, Varanasi, Bareilly, Bhopal, Delhi, and Chennai. The craft flourished under the patronage of the Mughul courts.

Technique: The embroidery is done on different fabrics like velvet, satin, and silk with a variety of zari threads and materials like badla (the untwisted wire), salma (stiff finely twisted circular wire) gijai (twisted metallic wire), dabka (zig-zag coiled wire), sitara (small circular disc), pearls and colored beads (Pic. 1.18). The different stitches used in Zardozi are chain stitch, stem stitch and satin stitch. The fabric to be embroidered is first stretched on a rectangular wooden frame supported on two tripods called a karchob. A hook or an awl is used to execute the embroidery.

Motifs: The motifs used are mainly floral and geometrical. Some popular motifs are creepers, flowering bush, floral scrolls, and intricate jali patterns.

Style of Embroidery: There are two embroidery styles namely Karchobi and Kamdani under Zardozi. In Karchobi, the fabric is clamped on a wooden frame and elaborately embroidered to create decorative home furnishings and ornate apparel. Kamdani is lighter embroidery done on apparel like dupattas and scarves without clamping the fabric on any frame.

End-Use: Zardozi was traditionally done to ornament wall hangings, bedcovers, cushion covers, curtains, palanquin covers, trappings for elephants, bullocks and horses, canopies, shoes, jackets, purses, boxes, etc.

The embroidery continues to be one of the most favored ornamentations for decoration of apparel such as lehenga choli, sari etc.

Presently, Zardozi is also explored on different types of base material like jute to develop trendy products like bags and decorative fashion accessories.

Zardozi on jute
Zardozi on jute


Kasuti embroidery depicting tulsi pot holder and elephant motifs
Kasuti embroidery depicting tulsi pot holder and elephant motifs


Region: Kasuti embroidery is practiced in Karnataka. The embroidery considered an auspicious craft, is executed by women. In ancient times, every bride would own a black silk sari, Chandrakali sari, with Kasuti embroidery done on it.

Technique: The embroidery is done on hand-woven cloth of darker colour usually black with cotton threads in different colours like red, orange, purple, green, yellow and blue. Four basic stitches are used: Gavanti, double running stitch that creates the same effect on both sides of fabric; Murgi, zig-zag running stitch that works in stepwise manner; Negi, a simple running stitch that produces a weave-like effect, and Menthi, cross stitch that gives a heavier appearance. The embroidery threads used are drawn from the old silk sari borders.

Motifs: The motifs are inspired from religion, architecture, flora and fauna, and objects of daily use. Some examples are star shaped designs, chariot and palanquin for deity, tulsi pot holder, cradle, the sacred bull, deer, elephant, peacock, horse, and lotus

Style of Embroidery: The embroidery uses a combination of horizontal, vertical and diagonal stitches. The motifs are not traced on the fabric and the embroidery is executed by counting the yarns on the base material.

End-Use: Traditionally the embroidery was done on Ilkal sari and other apparel items like women’s blouse and children’s bonnets.

Presently Kasuti embroidery is also done on home products like cushion covers, bedcovers, curtains and accessories like handbags, mobile pouches, belts etc.

Lambadi Embroidery

Lambadi embroidery with mirror work
Lambadi embroidery with mirror work


Region: Lambadi embroidery is practiced by the Lambadas or Lambanis, the Banjaras of Bellary and Bijapur in Karnataka and Hyderabad in Andhra Pradesh. The colourful embroidery was done by the women to decorate their costumes namely phetia or skirt and kanchali or blouse.

Technique: The embroidery is done on hand-woven cloth in dark blue or red colour. The embroidery is done with colourful threads using basic stitches like herringbone stitch, chevron stitch, cross stitch and running stitch, combined with appliqué. The embroidery is further embellished with mirrors, cowrie shells, beads, coins and silver trinkets.

Motifs: The motifs are mainly geometrical with grid-like patterns.

Style of Embroidery: The embroidery uses a combination of stitches and appliqué, along with mirror work and other embellishments like cowrie shells and coins.

End-Use: In the past, Lambani women embroidered their garments and other utility products like pouches and bags. Nowadays, embroidery is done on a variety of products like cushion covers, bedcovers, wall hangings, garments, and accessories like bags, headbands, waist belts, etc.



Region: Kantha is an embroidery style that originated in West Bengal. In the past, it was used to transform old, used fabric into an embroidered textile.

Technique: The embroidery is executed on layers of old white cotton saris that are stitched together with a simple running stitch in white thread. The motifs are traced and embroidered using different colored threads. The embroidery threads used are drawn from the old sari borders. The basic stitch used is running stitch along with satin stitch and chain stitch.

Motifs: The motifs used in Kantha are lotus flowers, floral scrolls, tree of life, creepers; animal and bird forms; fish, sea monsters, mermaids, ships, submarine scenes; domestic articles like mirrors, pitcher, nutcracker, umbrella, musical instruments and human figures like gods and goddesses, horseman, fisherwoman, etc. 

Style of Embroidery: Different embroidery layouts are followed in Kantha. Some examples are A central motif and tree of life on all four corners, motifs arranged in panels or a big central panel, and smaller motifs placed around.

End-Use: Kanthas were mainly used as quilts and also offered to special guests to sit or sleep on it. It was presented to the bride and groom as well as used to wrap valuables and gifts. Other uses of Kantha include bags for keeping money and book covers.

Nowadays, Kantha embroidery is done on a single layer of white or colored fabric base using contemporary motifs. The product range includes stoles, dupattas, saris, and suit materials.


Sujani depicting scenes from daily life
Sujani depicting scenes from daily life


Region: Sujani is an embroidery style practiced in parts of Bihar, namely Muzaffarpur, Bhusra, Madhubani, and Patna. Similar to Kantha, the embroidery was traditionally done on layers of old saris and converted into a quilt. In the past, Sujanis or embroidered quilts were made on the arrival of a newborn.

Technique: The embroidery is carried out on layers of old white cotton saris that are stitched

together with a simple running stitch in white thread. The motifs are filled-in with rows of running stitch in colored threads drawn from the old sari borders. The outlines of the motifs are defined with chain stitch.

Motifs: The motifs used in Sujani are drawn from daily life and the natural surroundings. Some examples are flowers, plants, elephants, birds, fishes, gods, and goddesses. The contemporary Sujanis are also portraying social concerns like female foeticide, women empowerment, girl child education and domestic violence.

Style of Embroidery: The embroidery layout is such that each piece of Sujani tells a story. The motifs are simpler and bolder in comparison to the Kantha embroidery.

End-Use: Traditionally Sujanis were used as baby wraps. Presently the women artisans are doing sujani embroidery on different products like bed covers, cushion covers, wall panels, stoles, dupattas and fashion accessories.

Pipli Applique

Pipli Applique
Pipli Applique


Region: Pipli appliqué is a traditional craft from Orissa that gets its name from its place of origin. Pipli is a small town in Orissa, where the appliqué embroidery is practiced by artisans called Darjis. It is believed that the appliquéd textiles were initially made to decorate the idols in Lord Jagannath temple of Puri, Orissa.

Technique: The appliqué is done using pieces of fabric that are cut into specific shapes and stitched on a base fabric. The raw edges of the applied motif are finished with a row of chain stitches. The other stitches used for appliqué are stem stitch and blanket stitch. To impart a three-dimensional appearance to the appliqué, fabric strips are either folded or gathered and applied to the base fabric. The appliqué is further decorated with rickrack laces and mirror work.

Motifs: The motifs in Pipli work are mainly geometric, abstract, and stylized inspired by flora, fauna, and mythology. Typical motifs are flowers, birds, animals, fishes, and deities of the Lord Jagannath temple.

Style of Embroidery: The Pipli appliqué is easily identified by its vibrant colors. Fabric pieces in bright colours are cut in a particular shape and applied on a contrasting colored base material.

End-Use: Traditionally Pipli products were used to decorate the royal kingdoms and the Jagannath Temple of Puri. Even today, big-sized appliquéd canopies are used for deities during religious processions.

Presently a range of contemporary pipli products are available including garden umbrellas, wall hangings, lampshades, home furnishings like cushion covers, bed covers and fashion accessories like bags and pouches.

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  1. karma says

    Isn’t this copyright infringement, the entire article is ripped from the CBSE Textile Book for XI Grade, very unprofessional

  2. UniversityKart says

    Working Professionals and Students can use UniversityKart as a one-stop solution to search about College University available course fees and admission details.

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