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Yarn Formation/Spinning

The Fibre formation process includes a change in shape, structure, and properties of the thermoplastic polymer. The polymer pellets or granules are fed into an extruder where, through heating, their melting temperature is exceeded. The polymeric melt is then transported, under pressure, to the spinneret. Yarn formation methods were originally developed for spinning of natural fibers including cotton, linen, wool and silk.



The thickness of yarn is measured as Counts. Yarns are made in different counts like 2’s, 4’s, 10’s, 16’s, 20’s, 24’s, 25’s, 30’s, 34’s, 36’s, 38’s, 40’s, 60’s, 80’s, 100’s, etc. We can consider like this. 0’s counts are cotton fiber. 20’s counts yarn is thicker than 24’s yarn. Likewise, 30’s yarn is thicker than 34’s. So when the yarn counts are increasing, the thickness becomes lesser. We can see, the higher the counts, the lesser the thickness.

Yarn prices based on the thickness. Price of 20’s yarn is lesser than 24’s. Price of 30’s yarn is lesser than 34’s yarn. We must know, higher the counts, higher the prices. There are 2 qualities of yarn. Combed and Carded.

Combed is superior quality. The cotton fibers are in different lengths from 0.25 inches to 2.5 inches. According to the technical parameters, the fibers with more length are considered to be better. These long fibers give more evenness and more strength for yarns.

Also, the short fibers are increasing hairiness whereas the long fibers are decreasing hairiness in yarns. Hence in order to get uniformity in fiber lengths, the short length fibers are to be eliminated from the long length fibers. For this purpose, a special process is being done. This process is called ‘Combing’. Because of the same longer length of fibers, the yarn will be very even with lesser hairiness. Hence after knitting or weaving, the fabric will have very even look.

The carded yarn is inferior in quality. As the above said ‘combing’ process is not being done, the carded yarn will be made of the fibers in different lengths. Hence the yarn strength will be lesser than combed yarn. Also, the carded yarn will have more hairiness and due to this, the fabric made with carded yarns will have more unevenness. Because of this extra process, the Combed yarn price is higher than Carded yarn. Also Combed yarn quality is superior to Carded yarn.

Mixing and Blending

Mixing: It is generally meant as the intermingling of different classes of fibers of the same grade e.g. USA Pima grade2, CIS

Blending: IT is meant as the intermingling of different kinds of fibers or different grade of same fibers e.g. polyester & cotton, Viscose &

Objectives of missing or blending

  • Economy
  • Processing performance
  • Functional properties

Yarn Formation

yarn spindles on spinning machine

The yarn is a continuous strand which is made up of filaments or fibers. It is used to make fabric/textiles of different kinds.

Yarn formation methods were originally developed for spinning of natural fibers including cotton, linen, wool, and silk. Since the overall physical characteristics of the fibers and processing factors needed to differ from fiber to fiber, separate processing systems were developed. As synthetic fibers were introduced, synthetic spinning systems for texturized and untexturized cut staple were developed as modifications of existing staple systems, whereas spinning systems for texturized and untexturized filament were developed separately.

Grams per Square Metre (GSM)

GSM is the short form of Grams per Square Metre. GSM is the very most important thing which defines the weight of the fabrics of knit garments.

Garment price and quality based on many things like GSM, fabric quality, colors, finishing, prints, embroidery, style, etc. But GSM is the most important thing to be decided when confirming the prices between the sellers and buyers.

GSM is the weight of 1mtr x 1mtr fabric. It means 100cm x 100cm = 10,000 sq.cms. It can be found out by any one of the below ways.

By the weight of 100cm x 100cm fabric bit.

By the weight of 50cm x 50cm fabric bit multiplied by 4.

By the weight of 25cm x 25cm fabric bit multiplied by 16.

By the weight of 10cm x 10cm fabric bit multiplied by 100.

We must be aware that if we use the smaller size bit, accurate GSM cannot be achieved. The bigger size of fabric bit is better used to get exact or closer GSM.

If we have fabrics, then we don’t have any problem in finding GSM, as we can cut any dimension to find GSM. But most of the times, we will have only the garments to find GSM. And we will have to keep the garment style, making and other references.

So we will be allowed to cut a small bit from the garments. Hence nowadays, round cutters are used. This system is used worldwide. With the help of this round cutter, the fabric will be cut into a small bit.

Then the GSM of the fabric can be found out by multiplying the weight of this round bit by 100. This round bit is to be weighed on an electronic scale with milligram accuracy. As this bit is very small and as the weight has to be multiplied by 100, the fabric has to be cut very sharply to get the exact GSM. Hence the blades of this round cutter are to be sharp and new to get the exact GSM.