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Application of Technical Textiles in Everyday Life

Technical Textiles Advancements in Non-Industrial Usage

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Technical textile end-usage on heat and flame protection fabrics, waterproof fabrics, geotextiles, implantable and non-implantable medical textile materials, extracorporeal devices with technical textiles, and new developments in Technical Textiles

Extracorporeal devices

Extracorporeal devices are mechanical organs that are used for blood purification and include the artificial kidney (dialyser), the artificial liver, and the mechanical lung. The function and performance of these devices benefit from fibre and textile technology. The function of the artificial kidney is achieved by circulating the blood through a membrane, which may be either a flat sheet or a bundle of hollow regenerated cellulose fibres in the form of cellophane that retain the unwanted waste materials Multilayer filters composed of numerous layers of needle-punched fabrics with varying densities may also be used and are designed rapidly and efficiently to remove the waste materials.

The artificial liver utilizes hollow fibres or membranes similar to those used for the artificial kidney to perform its function. The microporous membranes of the mechanical lung possess high permeability to gases but low permeability to liquids and function in the same manner as the natural lung allowing oxygen to come into contact with the patient’s blood.

Extra Corporeal Devices

Extra corporal devices are mechanical organs that are used for blood purification and include the artificial kidney, the artificial liver and the mechanical lung.

Artificial Kidney

  • A tiny instrument, about the size of a two-cell
  • Made with hollow hair sized cellulose fibres or hollow polyester fibre slightly latest than capillary
  • The fabric which is used to remove waste products from patient’s

As the blood flows through the kidney it is cleaned by passing through thousands of tiny filters. The waste materials go through the ureter and are stored in the bladder as urine. Dialysis machine hollow viscose or hollow polyester fibre, to stimulate functions of the real kidney to remove the waste products from the patient’s blood (Fig 4.4 Artificial Kidney).

Fig 4.4 Artificial Kidney

 

Artificial Liver

Made with hollow viscose to separate and dispose of patients plasma and supply fresh (Fig 4.5 Artificial Liver)

One of the liver’s most important functions is to break down food and convert it into energy. When energy is required in an emergency the liver rapidly converts its store of glycogen back into glucose ready for the body to use. The liver also helps the body to get rid of waste products. Waste products that are not excreted by the kidneys are removed from the blood by the liver. Artificial livers are made from hollow viscose, to filter patients’ blood and to help remove the waste products.

Fig 4.5 Artificial Liver

 

Artificial Heart

  • An 8 – ounce plastic pump lined with dacom velour to reduce damage to blood is a chambered apparatus about the size of a human ( Fig 4.6 Artificial Heart).
  • Silastic backing makes the fabric imperious to emerging gas is not desirable in the blood

Fig 4.6 Artificial Heart

 

Mechanical Lung

  • Made with hollow polypropylene fibre or a hollow silicone membrane
  • Used to remove carbon-di-oxide from patient’s blood and supply fresh oxygen

The human respiratory system carries oxygen to the lungs, where it enters the bloodstream to travel throughout the body. This system also carries the “used” air, which is mostly carbon dioxide, back to the lungs so that it can be breathed out. Hollow polypropylene fibre and hollow silicon membrane are used to make mechanical lungs. The functions the mechanical lung performs are to remove carbon dioxide from the patients’ blood and to supply fresh oxygen. (Fig 4.7 Mechanical Lung).

Fig 4.7 Mechanical Lung

Function of devices

Product application Fibre type Function
Artificial kidney patients Hollow viscose, hollow Polyester Remove waste products from the blood
Artificial live plasma patient Hollow viscose Separate and dispose of patients and supply fresh plasma
Mechanical lung patients Hollow polypropylene, hollow silicone, silicone membrane Remove carbon dioxide from the blood and supply fresh blood

Table 4.3 illustrates the function of each device and the materials used in their manufacture

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