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Woven fabrics and types

Fabric formation with weaving technique

Woven fabrics are made by using two or more sets of yarn interlaced at right angles to each other. Much variety of fabrics are produced by weaving.

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Woven fabrics are made by using two or more sets of yarn interlaced at right angles to each other. Much variety is produced by weaving. Woven fabrics are generally more durable. They can be easily cut into different shapes and are excellent for producing styles in garments. However, the raw edges ravel or fray easily and need to be protected. Fabrics having more fabric count (number of wrap and weft yearns present) keep the shape well. Low count fabrics are less durable and may snag or stretch.

Woven fabrics are manufactured in different widths depending on the end use. The fabrics used for apparels usually contain 90 cms width. The Sheeting materials are generally made having a width of 160 cm/140cms and 150cms/180 cms.

Woven Fabric Types

Buckram

It is a stiff coated fabric made from a lightweight loosely woven fabric, impregnated with adhesives and fillers. This fabric is used as interfacing so as to provide support and shape retention to necklines, collars, belts, cuffs, waistbands, button closures etc in garments. They are also used as reinforcements for handbags and other articles.

Cambric

Cambric a lightweight fabric woven in plain weave and produced with a stiff finish. It is suitable for women’s dresses and children’s dresses that require crispness.

Casement

Casement is a medium weight cotton fabric made of closely packed thick warp yarns. Generally, it is used for curtains, table linen, upholstery and rarely used for dresses.

Cheese Cloth

It is a popular lightweight sheer fabric having an open weave. It has a low count fabric consisting of carded yarns. Originally it was used for wrapping cheese or meat and hence the name. It is neither strong nor durable. It is finished in a variety of ways that attract the consumer. It is used not only for women’s and children’s dresses but also for drapery fabrics. Due to its open structure, it does not require much ironing.

Chiffon

Chiffon fabrics are sheer, lightweight fabrics made of hard twisted yarns. Originally these are made in silk fabrics but today they are made from rayon or polyester. They are used for sarees and women’s evening wear. The fabrics encounter the problem of shrinkage.

Chintz

Chintz is a medium weight, plain woven cotton yarn. It is often given a glazed finish which may be temporary or semi-permanent glazed chintz are available in solid color as well as printed with floral prints. These are often made from blends of cotton and polyester or rayon. They are used for skits, dresses, blouses, pajamas, aprons, and draperies.

Corduroy

It is a cut pile fabric available in solid colors. The cut pile fibers are seen in the form of ribs on the surface. It is mainly used for pants, jeans, and shirts.

Crepe

A silk fabric is originally characterized by a crinkle, puckered surface formed by highly twisted yarns in the warp or weft or both. By using ordinary yarns similar crepe effects can also be produced. Synthetic fabrics also impart crepe effect finish. It is used for sarees, shirts, women and children’s dresses.

Denim

It was traditionally a yarn dyed, warp-faced cotton twill fabric. Warp is usually colored (mostly blue, maroon, green and brown) and weft is white. This fabric is made of two weights for sportswear and overalls. Its use as jeans has made it very popular and so the nature of denim is also changed to suit the trend. It is often napped, printed and made with stretch yarn.

Drill

It is a warp-faced twill woven fabric. It has a stiff finish. Originally it was produced in white and now it is available in solid colors. It is mainly used for pants, knickers, and uniforms.

Flannel

Flannel is a woolen fabric woven in plain or twill weave having the characteristic soft handle. It looks like a bulky fabric due to the milling that is usually done to this fabric. Flannel fabric is used for suits and pants and infant’s clothing.

This fabric is popular as cleaning fabric due to its extreme softness. This is also used to protect children from cold atmosphere.

Gabardine

Gabardine is a closely woven, clear finished warp-faced twill fabric. It contains a number of warp yarns than weft yearns and also more durable. It is usually woven in 2/1 or 2/2 twill and has a raised diagonal twill effect on the right side. It largely used for raincoats, suitings, and sportswear.

Georgette

Georgette is a sheer lightweight fabric, woven in plain weave. It has a characteristic rough texture produced by hard twisted ply, yarns both in warp and weft. Originally it was made in silk, but today it is produced in rayon and polyester too. It’s mainly suitable for women’s evening wear.

Kashmir Silk

Kashmir silk is a silk fabric produced in plain weave and is either embroidered or printed. The motifs used are characteristic of Kashmir. It is used for shirts, women’s wear and sarees. Kashmir shawls are woven in twill weave and are usually embroidered with traditional Kashmiri embroidery.

Khadi

Khadi is a term used to a wide variety of fabrics that are hand spun and hand woven. They are produced in mainly one cotton fiber, blends of two or more fibers. They are known for durability and simplicity. The fabrics can be suitings dhoties overalls and household textiles.

Lawn

The lawn is a fine sheet, lightweight, crisp fabric either made of cotton or linen. Various finishes are given to this fabric, in which the fabric is called by the name of the finish. It is mainly used as lining in a dress.

Mulmul

It is an Indian term generally applied to fine cotton fabric slightly heavier, than muslin. These are often printed fabrics. They find use as sarees.

Muslin

Muslin is a lightweight open cloth of plain weave. It may be used as grey or bleached and dyed. It is used as household textiles and dress materials.

Poplin

Poplin is a medium weight, the cotton fabric having a fine weft rib. it is generally used for shirting, dresses, and upholstery.

Sheeting

These are primarily used for bed coverings. They are medium weight, closely woven fabrics woven either in plain or twin weave. Sheeting fabrics are made in different widths. High-quality cotton sheetings are made in plain weave with a width of 64″ x 58″ and in a twill weave with a width of 60″x72″.

Taffeta

Taffeta is a smooth, crisp, transparent fabric having a fine rib. Originally it is made with silk fibers but now it is also made of rayon. It has a characteristic finish which produces crispness. It is used as women’s evening wear.

Tissue

It is a fine fabric either made of silk or man-made fiber. They are characteristically interwoven with gold or silver threads. It is produced in rich colors and they are used as women’s dress material, sarees etc.

Velvet

It is a warp cut pile fabric, originally made from silk. It is also produced in Rayon. The dense cut pile makes it very soft and lustrous. It is used as dress materials for women and children. It is also produced with special high twisted yarns which are single or ply yarns. Based on the yarns used and twist given, they are named as semi violes (single yarns1x1) full voiles. (ply yarns 2×2) or half voile (double in warp and single in weft 2×1).

Mousseline

A term used to denote very fine clear fabrics, finer than muslins. Made of silk, wool or cotton, the weave structure is either (plain) tabby or two and one twill. In the 18th century, the British term referred to a fine cloth with a cotton warp and a worsted weft. In France, from the late 18th century onwards mousseline-delaines were made of very fine wool which was printed in beautiful designs. This fabric
proved very popular for fashionable as dress and shawl fabrics. The mousseline cloth is so fine and transparent it is often found backed with another cloth of either a satin or taffeta silk.

Organdie / Organza

Originally it is a lawn fabric which is given a stiff finish. Acid is used for this finish to make the fabric transparent and stiff. It is mainly used for women’s wear.

A thin light fabric in a (plain) tabby weave which, if organza, has a very stiff crisp finish; and for organdie, the finish is lighter or there is no finish, and thus the cloth is more pliable. The structure of the cloth always has more warps than wefts per inch, and the weft threads are finer than the warp threads. Illustrated is a colorful group of organza fabrics.

Leno

A fabric in which an open effect is created by causing certain thread ends or doup
threads to cross over. Two threads or ends act as one thread; when a weft thread
passes between them, the doup ends twist catching the weft and holding it tightly in place. Very fancy and beautiful clothes can be produced by combining the cross weaving, with other weave structures.

Aertex

A trade name for a cloth patented in Britain in 1886, which was first manufactured
in 1888. The cloth traps air in between its structure, keeping the body cool in summer, and warm in winter. Two threads or ends act as one thread; when a weft thread passes between them, the doup ends twist catching the weft and holding it tightly in place. Very fancy and beautiful clothes can be produced by combining the cross weaving with other weave structures.

Muslin

The name is derived from the city of Mosul where the fabric was first made. It is a very light and open tabby (plain) weave fabric used for summer dresses and utility use. At first, the cloth was not always plain but could also have silk and gold thread woven into it. As the ability to spin yarns of greater fineness developed cotton was used more readily than silk. In this muslin, the motif weaves in and out of the cloth, as if it has been embroidered. In the Madras net, the motif is predominately woven on the surface.

Madras muslin net

Madras net is used mainly for furnishing such as curtaining. The cloth is an open gauze ground cloth where an extra weft is inserted to produce a motif, this is
then woven into the ground cloth. Where there is a surplus floating weft yarn this is then cut away after weaving revealing the motif, the edge of the sheared motif
shows shorn ends of a weft yarn.