Natural INDIGO Dye – THE KING OF NATURAL DYES
Basic Weave Patterns
Simplest weave requiring a 2 harness loom, formed by yarns at right angles whereby each warp yarn interlaces with each weft yarn Properties: least expensive to produce, reversible unless surface design, wrinkles more, firm & wears well, less absorbent, abrasion resistant, used as background for printing/embroidery.
Rib Weave fabrics
Rib effect is produced by using heavy yarns in the filling direction or by more warp than filling yarns per inch. Eg Bengaline, ottoman, faille, poplin, broadcloth, taffeta.
Basket Weave fabrics
Basketweave is made by treating two or more yarns as one in either the warp or weft or both the directions and interlacing them in plain weave. It is not as firm as plain weave, have more yarn slippage, shrinks easily. Eg 2X1, 2X2, 2X4, 3X2, 4X4. Oxford cloth is 2X1 & monk cloth is 4X4. Flat duck, hopsacking, Panama are other examples.
Each warp or weft yarn floats across two or more weft or warp yarns with a progression of interlacing by one to the right or to the left, forming a distinct diagonal line or wale. The direction of diagonal may be formed from right to left, from left to right or a combination of both. Soil resistant, softer & pliable, good wrinkle recovery, durable & wears well. The direction of the twill on the back of the cloth is opposite to the twill line on the face. 3 harness is required for twill weave.
- Right Hand Twill – diagonals run upwards to the right
- Left Hand Twill – diagonals run upwards to the left.
- Balanced Twill – the same number of warp pass over filling yarns. It is reversible. 2X2, 4X4
- Unbalanced Twill – have the uneven number of warp or filling yarn. It has a right or wrong.
- Denim Broken Twill – combines right or left-hand twills
- Herringbone Twill – a series of inverted V’s are formed resembling the backbone of the
- herringbone fish. Most commonly used in suiting fabrics.
- Twill Angles – according to the angles of the diagonal line, Regular twill – 45 °? ,
- Reclining twill – with smaller angles, Steep twill – with larger angles. E.g.: denim, herringbone, houndstooth
Each warp/ filling yarn floats over 4 filling/ warp yarns & interlaces with 5th filling/ warp yarn, with the progression of interlacing by 2 to right or left (warp-faced/ weft faced). Luster (long floats), firm, durable (yarns packed closely together), pliable, wrinkle resistant, yarn slippage. Satin is warp faced. Sateen is weft-faced. 5 harness is required for a satin weave.
Compound/ Complex/ Novelty Weaves/ Figure/ Decorative weave
Small figured designs (floral or geometrical) woven repeatedly throughout the fabric, produced by a combination of two or more basic weaves, using a dobby attachment on the loom. Weaving pattern controlled by a plastic tape with punched holes that control the raising & lowering of warp yarns. It uses up to 32 harnesses.
Characteristics: highly intricate large designs using colored yarns and multi-weaves produced on a loom with jacquard attachment. Incorporates all 3 basic weaves & their combination. Each warp yarn is controlled separately by punched cards that are laced together in a continuous strip. Are more expensive. Used for home furnishing, apparel, elaborate & decorative fabrics. Eg Brocade, Damask, tapestry, brocatelle, matelasse
Surface Figure /Extra Yarn Weaves
Extra warp or weft yarn introduced in fabric to produce designs at regular intervals. Between 2 motifs, extra yarn floats across back of fabric Clipped / unclipped Spot – embroidery-like design is achieved through either extra warp or weft yarn. Long floats on the back when the cut is called Clipped Spot & when uncut – Unclipped Spot.
Swivel – contains extra filling yarns. In these weaves, the extra yarn is interlaced with the background at different places to avoid pulling. These are stronger than Spot weave.
Lappet – contains extra warp yarns.
Lightweight to heavyweight cotton fabric with a raised woven design. Lengthwise wales or cords on the face of fabric (formed by extra warp yarns) that are held in place by crosswise weft floats on the back of the fabric. Extra warp yarns (stuffer yarns) do not show on the face of the fabric. They are not interwoven but laid under the cords to emphasize the quilted effect. Made of dobby or jacquard loom. Eg waffle, huck toweling, granite, honeycomb, bedcord, pique.
They are made with 3, 4 or 5 sets of yarn. Two fabrics are woven together on the same loom, one above the other & laced together with an extra set of warp or weft yarns called binder yarns (5 sets of yarns). Pile fabrics are commonly prepared by this method. Produces a variety of fabrics, reversible, stable, may have different color or design on the two sides. Used for upholstery, drapery, and heavy apparels.
Other Special Weaves
Crinkled or pebbly surface. Irregular, indistinct pattern utilizing both plain and satin weave using dobby attachment are made. Few crepe weave fabric is available. Other crepe fabrics are created using crepe yarn which is highly twisted (up to 65 tpi). Textured yarns, bicomponent yarns (uneven shrinkage), embossing, stamping crepe like effect are being used. In all these plain weaves, synthetic fibers and thermoplastic property are used.
The warp yarns are paired. With a special leno or doup, attachment warp yarns are crossed/ twisted over each other in pairs around each pick, firmly holding the filling yarn in the figure – 8 loops formed. Leno fabrics are open and gauge like. Leno weave is useful in reducing yarn slippage, greater firmness & strength than plain weave. Uses-curtain, gauge, marquisette, grenadine, fruit sacks, rice net, mosquito net, mesh.
3-dimensional fabrics, utilizing 3 sets of yarns, warp & weft to form base fabric & extra set of warp or weft yarns to form pile or loop surface. Extra set of yarns forming the pile may be cut to produce an erect pile on the face of fabric – Cut Pile – velvet or left uncut to form loops on one or both sides of fabric- Uncut pile – terry.
Warp pile fabric – velvet, plushes, terry, velour.
Weft pile fabric – velveteen, corduroy
Colour Effect Weave
The pattern produced in a fabric by using a certain weave and a certain arrangement of differently colored yarns in both warp and filling. Hound’s tooth – 2 up, 2 down, 45° left-hand twill, and a group of 4 yarns of one color are arranged in both warp & filling followed by the other color.
Triaxial fabrics have 3 set of yarns, 2 warp & 1 filling. The warp yarns are placed diagonally to each other by special attachments, through which the filling yarn is interlaced. It is an ancient weave used in basket weaving. Stability against stretching in all direction even bias, strong resistance, resistance to shear forces & raveling. Lighter, longer life & less material required than biaxial fabrics. Three major weaves – basic triaxial weave, basic basket triaxial weave & biplane weave. Uses – aerospace, industrial fabrics, sailcloth, balloon, truck covers, uniforms & outerwear.