Textile Fabric Types – comprehensive list of textile fabrics
List of textile fabrics - fabric names - fabric patterns - type of fabrics
Generally, a set number of yarns are used for the formation of fabrics. Also, a number of techniques are used for producing fabrics such as weaving, knitting, and felting. The type of fabrics varies by the fibres, the fabric formation techniques, machinery used for producing them, and finishing techniques. Fabrics can also be made differently based on the end-usage.
Generally, fabrics take the name of the fibre used to manufacture it such as fabrics made out of 100% Cashmere Fibers is named as Cashmere Fabric.
However, certain fabrics although uses a particular fiber 100% or uses a blend of different fibers may be termed otherwise and are named depending on weaving patterns, texture, and the processes, etc. such as Organza fabrics were often used to produce with Silk, but even though they started using it with alternate fibers, it continued to be called as Organza Fabric.
Fabric Types by Patterns
Each fabric carries a unique name in order for it to be identified among others based on their textures, designs, weaving patterns, aesthetic values, fibre source, the place where the fabrics are originated, etc.
Denim fabrics generally used for making jeans is a rugged cotton twill. In denim fabric, the weft passes under two or more than two warp fibres that produce the common diagonal ribbing which is identifiable on the back of the fabric. The diagonal ribbing separates the existence of denim fabric from cotton duck. The denim fabric is generally coloured with indigo dye to create blue jeans though jeans denoted a distinct lighter cotton textile.
Denim fabric is used on a large scale all over the world economies. Its vivid texture and ability to provide extreme comfort makes it one of demanding fashion entities all over. With blissful shopping experience, people are moving toward more purchasing new innovative designs of denim fabric.
Chiffon basically refers to a light plain weaved sheer fabric with a soft drape of alternate Sand
Z-twist crepe yarns. The twist in the crepe yarns
puckers the fabric slightly in both directions after weaving, giving it some stretch and a slightly rough feel. These fabrics when held up to the light, strongly resembles closely woven netting.
Chiffon fabric can be manufactured using different fibres like silk, synthetic, polyester, rayon, cotton, etc. but it is generally associated with fibres like nylon or silk. Chiffon fabric can easily be dyed in contrast to any desired colour shade and used for bridal gowns and also appears in evening dresses, prom dresses, and scarves.
Organza basically refers to a thin, plain weave, and a sheer fabric which is made out of continuous filament of silk yarns. Today, many Organzas are woven with synthetic filament fibres like nylon and polyester but most of the stylish organzas are woven in silk. The most popular item made of organza fabric are bags. Various designs and shapes of organza fabric bags are attracting people towards them. Adding a nice touch of sophistication and uniqueness Organza fabric is the choice of millions.
Velvet is one of the smoothest and softest amidst all the other kinds of fabrics. Velvets are specially manufactured and process because of its distinctive properties.
Velvet fabrics are used in a variety of appliances like clothing including trousers, shirts, and many more. Also, velvet fabric is used in bed sheets, covers, curtains and etc. Velvet fabric is no less than silk in any assessments whether be glossiness or be the unending glaze. Velvet fabric, due to its high-class looks and price viability has made it the most preferred fabrics.
In the modern times, velvet fabrics are availed in the multifarious designs and colours. And also are stronger and elastic than the previous times. The newer velvet fabrics need less maintenance and can be easily washed and dried. Use of modern innovations in the composition of the velvet fabrics has made it more easily accessible to the common masses.
Taffeta fabric is a crisp, soft and smooth plain woven fabric with slight sheen manufactured out of different fibres like rayon, silk or nylon. Taffeta fabric is widely used in the manufacturing of women’s garments. The taffeta fabric has a unique rippled or wavy pattern which exhibits similarity to a water stain or mark, with dull and lustrous areas that reflect light differently.
The word ‘Taffeta’ has its origin from Persia, and means “twisted woven”. It is generally made with a plain weave, fine warp yarns, and heavier filling yarns. A good quality taffeta fabric represents the artwork in an optimum manner.
Georgette is a sheer and strong silk or silk-like clothing fabric that often comes with a dull, creped surface. In simple words, it is a sheer lightweight fabric that provides utmost comfort. This is fabric is usually made out of silk or polyester. As compared to chiffon, it is opaque and slightly heavy.
If it comes to least expensive and much practical fabric. Due to its exquisiteness and uniqueness, a georgette fabric proves a demanding item in the fashion industry.
Terry Fabrics generally used for towels (commonly known as terry bath towels) is a woven fabric, usually made of Cotton or a blend with a synthetic fibre and has a loop pile on one or both sides. The loops may cover the entire surface or may form stripes, cables, checks, or other patterns.
It is observed that original terry weaving was likely the result of defective weaving. The name “terry” comes from the French word “tirer” which means to pull out, referring to the pile loops which were pulled out by hand to make absorbent traditional Turkish towelling.
The classification of towels can be made according to weight, production, pile presence on fabric surfaces, pile formation, pile structure, and finishing. Warp knitted terry cloth is manufactured on a Raschel warp knitting machine, using three sets of warp yarns.
Yarns which are used in terry towels are high absorbency, high wet strength, and ability to dye well, good colourfastness wash-ability, soft hand, and hypoallergenic, low cost, and easy availability. Cotton is generally used as pile yarn in warp knitted terry cloth because of its excellent absorbency.
Grey or Greige Fabric
When no finish is applied to the textiles, they are termed as grey fabrics or greige fabrics or unfinished textiles, which of course does not refers to the colour of the fabric. It implies that no finishing treatment has been given to it. Grey fabrics are used chiefly when aesthetic values of the end-products are limited.
Due to its cost-effectiveness, exquisiteness, and longevity, the grey fabric has been widely used for cloth manufacturing. The uniquely woven grey fabric has become increasingly popular in appreciation of increased market demand.
Satin or Sateen Fabric
Satin/Sateen fabric is also said to be the most elegant fabrics. The reason behind is its astonishing looks and smooth surface. Satin fabric is used in a variety of apparels like a blouse, panties, gowns, and many other kinds of clothing. Satin fabric is used for bed sheets, curtains, and decorative purposes. The glossiness of the satin fabric really makes the material high class. At top of that, satin fabric is availed in multifarious colour options like black, red, green, purple, blue and etc.
Satin fabric is generally composed of silk or rayon and that is why it is so smooth. Also, satin is very light and delicate and are manufactured with a great deal of care and attention. Satin fabrics need a fine set up of manufacturing and processing unit as each and every strand of the satin fabric must be well knitted.
Duck or Canvas Fabric
Canvas fabrics are generally made of Cotton, Linen, or synthetic in heavyweights with an even firm weave.
Generally used for tents, motor hoods, belting, packagings, sneakers, painting canvases, tents, sandbags, Duck fabrics are rough fabrics.
A number of Canvas fabrics are commercially available made with various fibre sources such as Cotton, Linen, Hemp, and its blends.
Quilting is the art of covering the fabrics for frontal and back, both the sides. The fabrics composed by the sides are generally said to be the quilting fabric. Quilted fabrics are generally made for products like bags, clothing, and mattresses. Quilted fabrics can blend any of the material like cotton, polyesters, silk and many more including the wool.
Quilted fabrics have been in the daily uses since ages. With the time, the quilted fabric has been innovated and modernized in its composition and designs as well. Quilted fabric is also available in countless colours and shapes. Especially, the variety of the quilted fabric can be witnessed in the jackets and mattresses.
Organdy is the sheerest and stiff cotton fabric made with fine spun combed yarns. The fabric is characterized by stiffness and crispness. The fabric is crisped, made transparent by applying a special process known as Parchmentzing.Most stiff varieties are used in home furnishing fabrics like curtains and softer Organdy varieties
are used for summer wear like blouses, saris etc.
Oxford fabrics are made with loosely constructed weaves such as rib weaves, basket weaves, and half basket weaves out of soft fine yarn. Since basket weave is a loosely constructed weave, the fabric is porous. Fine and closely packed warp and coarser weft make the fabric lustrous.
It is one of the most popular shirt fabrics.
Brocade is woven fabrics having a raised floral or figured design that is introduced during the weaving process, usually by means of a Jacquard attachment. The design, appearing only on the fabric face, is usually made in a satin or twill weave. The exquisite fabrics are produced by weaving with warps and weft threads of different colours and often of different materials.Brocade refers to those textiles wherein patterns are created in weaving by transfixing or thrusting the pattern thread between the warp. In brocade designs with special threads are transfixed in between skipping the passage of the regular weft over a certain number of warp threads and by regularizing the skipping by means of pre-arranged heddles for each type of patterning.
Calico is plain, tabby woven fabrics printed with simple designs employing one or more colours. Calico is a woven fabric made from 100% cotton fibres. It is unbleached, undyed and not fully processed during production. This results in the fabric being light beige colour and quite rough in appearance and texture, and it may contain unseparated cotton
Chintz is a variation of Calico Fabric.
Cambric is a very fine bleached linen in imitation of the French fabric made around Cambria (France) and hence sometimes called French Lawn in Scotland. Due to the ease of maintainability, Cambric fabrics are ideal for handkerchiefs, children’s dresses, slips, underwear, and nightgowns.
Poplin fabrics plain woven horizontally ribbed fabrics. Poplin fabrics made of Polyester, Cotton, and its blends and the ribs are heavy and prominent as coarse weft yarns are used. Poplin fabrics are used for jackets, raincoats, shirts etc.
The word is derived from the obsolete French word Bombazine applied originally to silk but later to tree-silk or cotton. Bombazine was woven with a silk warp and worsted weft which is twilled or
corded and used for dress materials.
Viole is a plain woven fabric with the crisp finish made out of various fibres and mainly with Cotton. Voile uses highly twisted, finely combed yarns and products such as blouses and dresses are made with it.
Cheviot is a woollen fabric made originally from the wool of Cheviot sheep and now also made from other types of wool or from blends of wool and man-made fibres in plain or various twill weaves. A rugged tweed made from uneven yarn, this fabric usually has a rather harsh hand. Cheviot fabric is fine, soft, and pliable. the fabric has a crispness of texture similar to serge but is slightly rougher and heavier.
The drill is a type of twill woven fabrics made out of Cotton fibres, generally termed as Khakhi, used for uniforms, workwear, sailcloth, upholstery, tents, etc. due to its durability.
Corduroy is made from major textile fibres with one warp and two fillings. After it is woven, the back of the cloth is coated with glue; the floats of pile yarn are then cut in their centre. The glue prevents the filling from drawing out of the goods during the cutting. The glue is removed from the face, which is then subjected to a series of brushings, waxings, and singeings to produce a velvetlike ribbed finish.
Flannel is plain or twill woven fabrics popular for its softness and coziness. The softness comes from a technique employed by the mills called “double brushing”. It may be classified as brushed fabric with soft fibres protruding on one or both the fabric surface.
Originally, flannel was made of wool, but now it is made of cotton, wool or any other synthetic
fibre. Flannel fabrics are ideal for suitings, shirting, jackets, bedspreads, and pyjamas.
Crepe fabrics are without prominent weave effects but have a crinkled or pebble surface. It is a plain woven fabric made of very high twist yarns, either in one direction or both warp and
weft hence, giving the pebble effect. It may be manufactured in the range of light to medium
weight.The fabric has silk-like texture and drapes well. It is used for making dresses, blouses, linings, scarves and in home furnishings too.
Gauze is plain weave fabrics constructed with more spaces between the threads than regular fabric. Gauze fabric is usually made of cotton, rayon or their blends of soft texture spun yarns.
Though not suitable for durable applications, it is used in apparel, home furnishing like curtains and is popular in medical uses for bandages.
Chino Fabrics is the slightly lustered woven fabrics made out of Cotton is usually used for trousers and military uniforms.
Gabardine is made of twill woven worsted or cotton fabric. The fabric is produced by maintaining higher twist on warp yarns compared to weft yarns resulting in a fine, prominent twill line.
The fabric is available in various surface designs like heather, stripes, checks, plaid, or solid colour. Since the fabric is durable, gabardine is widely used in making pants, shirting and suiting.
Muslin fabrics are plain cotton fabrics made in a wide range of thickness ranging from light to heavy. Unfinished muslin is widely used as designer sample garments and interfacing. Muslin fabrics are named as book, mull, swiss, and sheeting based on the grades.
Shantung is plain-woven fabrics made out of Silk and fibres similar to Silk. The fabric is made with slub yarns in order to create rib effects along the weft direction and has a rough texture with sheen. Shantung fabrics are used for bridal gowns, dresses, etc.
- Damask Fabric
- Felt Fabric
- Chenille Fabric
- Gingham Fabric
- Batiste Fabric
- Tartan Fabric
- Madras Fabric
- Charmeuse Fabric
- Lame Fabric
- Hessian Fabric
- Percale Fabric
- Dimity Fabric
- Fustian Fabric
- Baize Fabric
- Khaki Fabric
- Lawn Fabric
- Foulard Fabric
- Ticking Fabric
- Linsey Fabric
- Camlet Fabric
- Whipcord Fabric
- Velour Fabric
- Cotton Fabric
- Silk Fabric
- Linen Fabric
- Wool Fabric
- Cashmere Fabric
- Mohair Fabric
- Leather Fabric
- Ramie Fabric
- Hemp Fabric
- Jute Fabric
- Rayon/Viscose Fabric
- Acetate Fabric
- Lyocell Fabric
- Azlon Fabric
- Polyester Fabric
- Nylon Fabric
- Acrylic Fabric
- Spandex Fabric
- Lastex Fabric
- Polypropylene Fabric
- Polyethylene Fabric
- Carbon Fabric
- Vinyl Fabric
Fabrics for Special Uses
The industrial fabric is a fabric which is usually made from man-made fibres like fibreglass, carbon, and aramid fibres. It covers a wide variety of widths, weights and construction particularly made to meet a specific application. The industrial fabric is used for decorative purposes. The industrial fabric is woven in various thicknesses and constructions in a basic weave, namely plain, leno, satin, basket etc.
It is primarily used for filtration, marine and recreational products, insulation, electronics, commercial & construction and protective garments etc.
Fibreglass is a material that generally consists of extremely fine glass fibres and often used in manufacturing different products like fabric, yarns, insulators and structural objects.
A filter fabric is well known for its functionality and longevity. However, a filter fabric is known for its high temperature and chemical resistance.
Plain fabrics are well known for their soberness and long-lasting durability. Clothing made out of plain fabric can simply be termed as the most impressive and exclusive range of clothing available today. With the available different varieties of plain fabric, the choice is endless. Plain fabrics are also well known for their durability and cost-effectiveness.
The clothing made using plain fabric is totally capable of impressing absolute anybody with its unique qualities and aesthetic appeal. A quality that along with its comfort, plain fabric clothes are extremely popular for leisure wear. Among the vast accumulation of available fabric, the plain fabric is most popular fabric.
A wide range of crewel fabric come from Kashmir in north-western India. Because of its versatility, a crewel fabric is widely used for the manufacturing of curtains, light upholstery, bed-heads, cushions and bed covers and so on. Due to its longevity, exquisiteness and with its aesthetic appeal, crewel fabric has been ruling the international market.
The availability of crewel fabric in subtle lustrous colour and rich texture makes it one of the most demanding items. A crewel fabric possesses the capability to complement various types of body tones.
Stretch fabric is a fabric referring to the normal fabric, which stretches in all four directions. Simplifying the construction of clothing stretches fabrics are commonly used in swimsuits. They were originally being used in the mid-1980s by a large number of fashion designers. Entering mainstream market in early 1990, Stretch fabrics are widely used in sportswear.
Sometimes Stretch fabric is also termed as Stretch woven fabric when it is blended with a stable fibre of cotton, wool or synthetic. When it comes to talking about stretching, then Stretch fabric is very easy to Stretch in one or both directions presenting the traditional look and lot of comfort. Stretch fabric has better shape retention and is wrinkle resistance because of which they are more comfortable to wear.
Reflective fabric is the nicest instance of the expanded usability of the fabrics. This has been all possible just because of the continuous innovation in the science field. Reflective fabric is known for their ability to reflect the light to the farthest distance possible. That is why; reflective fabric is used in countless usability, few of them are listed below:
- In the streets: the reflectors and the alerts are made up of the reflective fabric. It is generally red in colour as red has the largest ability to reflect. Also, it can be visible from the very long distance that makes the traffic flow smoothly. Especially in the night vision, reflective fabrics are proven to be the boon.
- Security: life jackets are made of the reflective fabrics. Also, other apparels are made by the reflective fabrics. Reflective fabrics help in notify the person in the crowd or any kind of situations. Coastguards and even police sometimes have their dresses made up of the reflective life jackets.
There are many another numerous usability of the reflective fibres, making it the finest fabrics that are great for durability and usability as well.
Fabrics are something that we daily come across. With the clothing to the seats, the fabrics are an integral part of the lives. There are several sorts of the fabrics like synthetic fabrics, natural fabrics and many more depending on their designs and usability. The narrow fabric is also the most commonly utilized fabrics in our daily lives.
Narrow fabrics are the thicker version of the fabrics as its strands are thicker and stronger. That is why; narrow strands are used in the things that are used for heavy duties. The narrow fabric is availed in mainly in the following forms:
- Laces: laces are used in shoes and many other tying purposes. Narrow fabrics in the laces make it strong and easy to grip on. In the recent times, there has been a revolution in the designs and shapes of the laces composed of narrow fabric. Now, laces, like ropes are commonly used in the daily appliances.
- Tapes: narrow fabrics are used to make the tapes. These tapes are great in appearance and stiff in the quality. These tapes are used for wrapping, decorating and many other purposes.
In the modern times, the usability of the narrow fabric has grown as it is light and has a splendid durability. That is why; narrow fabrics are hugely demanded in the global marketplace.
Sometimes the apparels, bags, beds are needed to be protected from the dust and other outer particles. This can be carried out through the laminated fabric, used to laminate all kind of clothing, sheets, covers, handbags and many more. Laminated fabric safeguards the core thing from any kind of external particles that hampers the quality and the glaze.
Lamination is carried us by the covering the material with the protective film on all the sides. That does not let water to pass through, making the material completely safe. However, it is not completely airtight as moisture is allowed to let in the for the long life of the fabrics.
Laminated fabric adds the durability and sustains the quality. In the recent developments, laminated fabric designs and shapes have been transformed with the undue assistance of the modern tools and techniques. Also, people have shown a great deal of zeal in the laminate fabrics because of it.