One unit of confirmation of thread resulting from repeatedly passing a strand or strands or loops of thread into or through a material is called a stitch. There are two basic stitch formations, lock stitch, and chain stitch. In all cases, the stitch develops from the formation of a loop in the needle thread as the needle rises from its lowest point. This loop is either inter-looped with the preceding loop or inter-looped with other threads or interlaced with an under thread in lockstitch.
- 1 How to stitch?
- 2 Major Stitch Formations
- 3 Stitch Items
- 4 Stitch types can be formed by
- 5 Stitch types and classification
How to stitch?
One unit of confirmation of thread resulting from repeatedly passing a strand or strands or loops of thread into or through a material is called a stitch.
Major Stitch Formations
Intra-looping is passing of a loop of thread through another loop formed by the same thread, example stitch type 101.
Interlooping is passing of a loop of thread through another loop formed by a different thread, example stitch type 401.
Interlacing is passing a thread over or around another thread or loop of another thread, example stitch type 301.
Stitch types can be formed by
- Without a material
- Inside material
- Through material
- On material
Stitch classes are designated and identified by the first digit of a “3 digit numeral system”. Type of stitch within each class are designated and identified by 2nd and 3rd digit.
Stitch quality is measured with stitch size (stitch length, width, and depth) tension, sequence, elongation, elasticity, resilience, fabric distortion, yarn severance, abrasive strength.
Stitch types and classification
Textile stitch types-classification and terminology, stitches are catalogued into six classes (as per BS3870/ASTM D-6193/ISO 4915:1991). The international and standardization use the identical numbering.
Class 100 is chain stitch type, is formed with one or more needle threads introduced from one side of the material only.
- chain stitch is elastic and thicker than lockstitch and can easily be raveled;
- particular care is required to prevent runback from the last stitch.
- Used for temporary stitching or for Blind stitching.
Class 200 is a hand stitch type, is formed by single thread passed from one side of the material to the other in successive needle penetrations.
- a slow process and need huge manpower to finish bulk order.
- Used for handwork.
Class 300 is a lock stitch type, is formed by a needle thread or threads, introduced from one side of the material, interlacing with an under thread
- supplied from a bobbin on the other side.
- low bulk and thin, good strength and abrasion resistance
- Poor elasticity, non-ravel
- limited sewing length, need to replace bobbin thread.
- for seams requiring a stretch.
Class 400 is multi-thread chain stitch type, is formed with two/more groups of threads having a general characteristic of interlacing interloping of the loops of the two groups.
- non-ravel, strong, good elasticity, less likely to cause seam pucker due to structural jamming
- good seam stretch
- does not need to wind a bobbin
- lower resistance to run back and have increased bulk under the seam
Class 500 is overlock over edge stitch type, is formed with one or more needles and/or loopier threads with at least one thread passing around the edge of the material being sewn.
- Excellent stretchable good recovery
- Seam or edge neatening
- suitable for many types of fabric
- subject to fraying or slippage.
Class 600 is formed with two or more groups of threads, has for a general characteristic that two groups of thread cover surfaces of the material.
- High elasticity, seam neatening and Flat seam stitch, Bulk, Fast machine speed
- No need of Bobbin
- Greater thread consumption
- Covering stitches for decorative purpose Can be used to join two raw edges, suitable for knitted garments.
Combination of stitch types
Combination of stitches are is formed when two or more rows of stitches of different classes are formed simultaneously in one separation.
- These are denoted by using two individual stitch type designations, joined with a dot for example 401.504
- Save time, labour, cost.
- more investment required