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Properties of Vegetable/Plant/Cellulosic fibres

Chemically, cotton is the purest vegetable fibre, containing >90% cellulose with little or no lignin.

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Vegetable/Cellulosic Fiber Properties

 

Chemically, cotton is the purest vegetable fiber, containing >90% cellulose with little or no lignin. The other fibers contain 40–75% cellulose, depending on processing.

Boiled and bleached flax and degummed ramie may contain >95% cellulose.

Kenaf and jute contain higher contents of lignin, which contributes to their stiffness. Although the cellulose contents are fairly uniform, the other components, eg, hemicelluloses, pectins, extractives, and lignin vary widely without an obvious pattern. These differences may characterize specific fibers.

Except for the seed-hair fibers, the vegetable fibers of bast or leaf origins are multicelled and are used as strands.

In contrast to the bast fibers, leaf fibers are not readily broken down into their ultimate cells. The ultimate cells are composites of microfibrils, which, in turn, are comprised of groups of parallel cellulose chains.

Bast and leaf fibers are stronger (higher tensile strength and modulus of elasticity) but lower in elongation (extensibility) than cotton. Vegetable fibers are stiffer but less tough than synthetic fibers. Kapok and coir are relatively low in strength; kapok is known for its buoyancy.

Chemical Composition of Vegetable Fibers, wt %

FiberCelluloseSemicellulosePectinLigninExtractives

Bast Fibers

Flax71.218.62.02.26.0
Hemp74.917.90.93.73.1
Jute71.513.40.213.11.8
Kenaf63.018.017.02.0
Ramie76.214.62.10.76.4

Leaf Fibers

Abaca70.121.80.65.71.8
Phormium71.3
Sisal73.113.30.911.01.6

Seed-hair Fibers

Coir43.00.145.0
Cotton92.92.62.61.9
Kapok64.023.023.013.0

Dimensions of Ultimate Fibers and Strands

Ultimate fiberCell cross-sectionFiber strand
FiberLength,mmDiameter,µmShapeDiameter,µmLength,cmWidth,mm

Bast Fibers

Chinese Jute2-6.57.33
Flax4-698-31Polygonal8.8-16.125-1200.04-0.62
Hemp5-5516Polygonal13.1-23.6100-4000.5-5
Jute0.7-615-25Polygonal-Oval12.3-18.6150-360
Kenaf2-1113-33Cylindrical200-400
Ramie60-25016-120Hexagonal-Oval6.2-32.410-180
Sunn2-1113-64Irregular13.6-24.6108-216
Nettle4-7020-7050-50

Leaf Fibers

Abaca2-126-40Oval-Round14-20150-3600.01-0.28
Cantala13.8-16.4
Caroa2-103-133.2-8.2
Henequen1.5-48.3-33.211.6-22.2
Istle9.6-161.2-13.430-75
Mauritius1.3-615-32Cylindrical124-210
Phormium2-115-25Round10-3-12.5150-240
Sansevieria1-713-40
Sisal0.8-7.58-48Cylindrical11-1660-1200.1-0.5

Seed-hair Fibers

Coir0.2-16.241
Cotton10-5012-25Circular Elliptical1.5-5.60.012-0.025
Kapok15-3010-30Round1.5-30.03-0.036

Other Fibers

Broom RootOthers25-40

Mechanical Properties of Vegetable Fibers

FiberFineness km/kgTensile Strength, kmElongation %Modulus of Elasticity, N/texModulus of repture, mN/tex

Bast (soft) fibers

Flax24702-318-208-9
Hemp13938-621-618-226-9
Jute48925-531.517-182.7-3
Kenaf180242.7
Ramie32-674.014-1611
Urena342161.9

Leaf (hard) fibers

Abaca3232-692-4.56
Cantala5830
Henequen3220-423.5-5
Istle3422-274.8
Phormium3826
Sansevieria118434.0
Sisal4036-452-325-267-8

Seed (hard) fibers

Coir18164.316
Kapok16-301.21310

To convert N/tex to gf/den, multiply by 11.33. Check the conversion calculator.

Textile-Associated Properties of Bast Fibers Compared to Polyester

PropertyCottonFlaxHempJuteRamiePolyester
Density g/cm1.54-1.501.501.481.501.511.22-1.35
Moisture regain, %8-11121213.760.4-0.8
Fiber tenacity, mN/tex260-440230-240510-600260-510450-653180-790
Elongation, dry, %3-102.7-3.31.61.2-1.93.0-7.018-67
Recovery from 2% Elongation, %7565745285-97
Length/width ration140012003000

To convert N/tex to gf/den, multiply by 11.33. Check yarn count converter.

1 Comment
  1. Kenny Friedel says

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