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Microscopic appearance of Fibers

The microscopic test is a technical test that involves identifying the fabric with the help of a microscope with a magnification of minimum 100 power. The test can easily distinguish between fibres.

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Technical tests require skilled personnel who can handle and use the equipment and chemicals for the analysis of the textile fibres. Among microscopic tests and chemical tests, microscopic tests are mainly used for natural fibre. The test identifies the natural fibres more easily as compared to manmade ones. Synthetic fibres are very similar in appearance and the increase in the number of varieties makes it a little tough to distinguish the fibres even under a microscope.

Microscopic Appearance of textile fibres

microscopeThe microscopic test is a technical test that involves identifying the fabric with the help of a microscope with a magnification of minimum 100 power. The test can easily distinguish between fibres. The test identifies the natural fibres more easily as compared to man-made ones. Synthetic fibres are very similar in appearance and the increase in the number of varieties makes it a little tough to distinguish the fibres even under a microscope.

 

 

Natural Fibres: Vegetable Fibres

  1. Cotton

    Longitudinal View

    Cotton longitudinal

    • Mature flat and ribbon-like with convolutions, thick wall and small lumen
    • Immature very thin wall and a large lumen with few convolutions
    • Dead very thin and almost transparent
    • Mercerized smooth and cylindrical, fewer convolutions and lumen or sometimes may be absent

    Cross-Sectional View

    Cotton Cross sectionl

    • Kidney Shaped
    • Elliptical
    • Very thin like a strip
    • Nearly round or circular
  2. Linen

    Lenin longitudinal

    Longitudinal View

    Smooth and Bamboo like with cross marking nodes, no lengthwise striations, narrow lumen

    Cotton Cross section

    Cross-Sectional View

    Sharp polygonal shape with straight sides. Immature oval shape with a large lumen.

  3. Hemp

    Longitudinal View

    Smooth and cylindrical with a cross marking nodes, no lengthwise striations, broad lumen

    Cross-Sectional View

    Partly polygonal

  4. Jute

    Longitudinal View

    Cylindrical with uneven in diameter, a lumen is broad and varies greatly

    Cross-Sectional View

    Rounded polygonal with a central lumen

  5. Ramie

    Longitudinal View

    Irregular and broad with cross marks irregular distributed, a conclusion may appear

    Cross-Sectional View

    Oblong

 

Natural Fibres: Animal Fibres

  1. Wool

    Longitudinal View

    Wool longitudinalCylindrical, irregular, rough surface, scale-like structure, dark medulla may appear on coarse wool fibres

    Cross-Sectional View

    Wool cross sectionalNearly round or circular, medulla may appear

  2. Silk

    Longitudinal View

    Silk longitudinalSmooth surface, Structureless, triangular shaped transparent rod(Wild silk/Tussah silk – broader fibre with fine, longitudinal lines passing across filament)

    Silk Cross sectionall

    Cross-Sectional View

    Triangular shape with rounded corners(Tussah silk flat wedge or spindle-shaped

 

Man-made Fibres

  1. Viscose Rayon

    Rayon longitudinalLongitudinal View

    • Normal type fairly dense longitudinal striations or fine lines
    • Special type-may be smooth and Structure less

    Rayon cross sectionallCross-Sectional View

    • Irregular with a serrated outline
    • Oval or round
  2. Cellulose Acetate fibres

    Acetate longitudinal

    Longitudinal View

    Uniform in width with a few distinct longitudinal striations

    Cross-Sectional View

    Irregular with a serrated outline

  3. Acrylic

    Acrylic longitudinal

    Longitudinal View

    Smooth surface, uniform diameter, rod-like appearance, some types with irregularly spaced striations

    Acrylic cross section

    Cross-Sectional View

    Rounded or Dumbbell shaped

  4. Polyester

    Polyester longitudinal

    Longitudinal View

    Structureless, uniform diameter, rod-like appearance

    Polyester cross section

    Cross-Sectional View

    Circular

  5. Nylon

    Longitudinal View

    Structureless, uniform diameter, rod-like appearance

    Cross-Sectional View

    Circular

2 Comments
  1. Jan Derry says

    please correct the many misspellings

  2. Chris Garvey says

    I was told that Rayon and Linen are similar under a microscope. Are they?
    How similar are they in texture & feel? In absorption? In coolness in hot weather? In durability?

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