Vinyl fibers are those man-made fibers spun from polymers or copolymers of substituted vinyl monomers and include vinyon, vinal, vinyon-vinal matrix (Polychlal), saran, and polytetrafluoroethylene fibers.
The vinyl fibers are generally specialty fibers due to their unique properties and use. All of these fibers have a polyethylene hydrocarbon backbone with substituted functional groups that determine the basic physical and chemical properties of the fiber.
Vinyon is defined as a fiber in which at least 85% of the polymerized monomer units are vinyl chloride. Vinyon fibers have high chemical and water resistance, do not burn, but do melt at relatively low temperatures and dissolve readily in many organic solvents, thereby limiting their application.
Vinyon as pure polyvinyl is marketed as PVC-Rhovyl, while vinyon HH is a copolymer. The fiber is of low strength but has properties that make it useful in apparel where heat is not a factor. It is difficult to dye.
Vinal fibers are made from polymers containing at least 50% vinyl alcohol units and in which at least 85% of the units are combined vinyl alcohol and acetal crosslink units. The fiber is inexpensive, resembles cotton in properties, and is produced in Japan.
Vinal resembles cotton and other cellulosic in end-use properties. Kuralon and Manryo are named under which vinal fibers are marketed. Vinal fiber has good strength and excellent abrasion and pilling resistance.
Fabrics of vinal have a warm comfortable hand, are absorbent, and exhibit good drapabi 1ity. The fiber has a silk-like appearance and luster. It has excellent sunlight resistance and fair heat resistance. It dyes readily with dyes for cellulosic.
VINYON-VINAL MATRIX FIBER
In response to the need for a fiber of low flammability (LOI of 31) and low toxic gas formation on burning, Kohjin company developed and marketed a vinyon- vinyl (50:50) matrix (Polychlal) fiber under the trade names Cordelia and Cordelan.
Vinyon vinyl matrix fiber is used primarily in applications where low flammability in apparel is desired and has been used extensively in children’s sleepwear.
Saran is the generic name for fibers made from synthetic copolymers that are greater than 80% vinylidene chloride.
The fiber is generally not used in apparel but rather in automobile upholstery, outdoor fabrics, home furnishings, and industrial applications.
Tetrafluoroethylene is better known by its trade name–Teflon–and is widely used in many applications including specialty fibers. Polytetrafluoroethylene fiber is extremely hydrophobic and chemically and thermally stable and is used in applications where such stability and inertness is needed.
Its hydrophobicity has permitted is to be used to form breathable but water repellant composite materials for textile usage, particularly in outdoor and rainwear.