Environmental Aspects in Textile Industry: Ecological Hazards and Remedial Measures
A study on environmental impact of textile industry and its remedies
Among many pollution-creating industries, textile has a larger share in terms of its impact with regard to noise, air, and effluent. It is, therefore, felt worthwhile to study the environmental hazards associated with various operations of textiles. In this paper, pollution arising out of noise and air is discussed. Areas of concern and their appropriate rectifying procedures are also taken into account.
Ecological degradation happens in natural fiber right from cultivation to finishing of the ultimate product. Prominent parameters and the possible package of corrective measures are highlighted. Synthetic fiber industry is not an exception to environmental pollution and therefore various pollution-creating activities are pointed out. Management of various textile wastes is also mentioned in this paper.
Man-Made Fibre Industry
The major raw material for synthetic fibres is obtained from petrochemical feedstock and is commonly known as monomer whereas cellulose is the major raw material for viscose and acetate. The type and average consumption of major raw material for individual fibre are given in Table VI.
A large number of various chemicals, besides pulp or monomer, as the case may be, are required during the manufacture of each fibre. Ingredients include acetic acid, titanium dioxide, spin finish, catalyst, methyl acrylate or vinyl acetate, sulphuric acid, sodium hydroxide, carbon disulphide, Zinc, sodium sulphate, di-sodium sulphide, acetic anhydride, thermal stabilizer, light stabilizer, antioxidants etc.
|Raw material||Cellulose Pulp||Caprolactum||DMT& EG||ACN||Propylene|
|Average Consumption||1140||1100||1100 & 420||1000||1000|
|Table VI: Major Material Consumption for Man-Made Fibre (Kg/ton product)|
ACN is toxic and as a consequence stringent measure in an acrylic manufacturing plant is necessary to ensure that it does not contaminate liquid discharge. One of the major pollutants in viscose plant liquid effluent causing concern is the presence of zinc. The average consumption of zinc is in the range of 15 Kg/MT fibres. The zinc concentration in the effluent is on an average 15-40 mg/l .
|Total Suspended Solid (mg/l)||1388||1736|
|Total Dissolved Solids (mg/l)||1600||1542|
|BOD, 5 days, 20ºC, mg/l||619||580|
|Volatile Solids (mg/l)||384||632|
|Alkalinity (as CaCo3), mg/l||350||730|
|Table VII: Parameters of Waste Water Generated by Synthetic Fibre Industry|
The average consumption and parameters for liquid effluent discharged by nylon and polyester industries are given in Table VII. In India, for nylon and polyester, the wastewater generated is on an average of 170 m3/MT and for viscose 1200 m3/MT, respectively.