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Different Technological Methodologies Used in Garment Industry

Apparel Manufacutring technological advancements adopted by different countries

In this article technologies adopted for production preparatory process, production process and post-production process used in the garment manufacturing industry and the level of technology that is used for each process commonly used by different countries viz. India, China, Bangladesh, Vietnam, and Sri Lanka.

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PRODUCTION PREPARATORY PROCESSES

Fabric Inspection

Fabric inspection in an apparel manufacturing setup is the visual analysis of raw materials. It takes place at various steps of production to check if they meet required standards or specifications in terms of nature of fabric, measurement, colour, count and other quality parameters.

Machines Used by Different Countries

India

India uses semi-automatic fabric inspection machines that are power-driven with variable frequency drive inverter for accurate speed control and proximity sensors to regulate the uniformity of edges, with an auto-stop selection. The machine is fitted with a metre counter to inspect the quantity of fabric being examined as well as a fabric holding tray to ease out the fabric handling.

China

China has a mid-level technology; it uses a semi-automatic fabric inspection machine.

Bangladesh

Most industries in Bangladesh use base-level technology. Fabric is inspected manually.

Vietnam

Vietnam mostly has a mid-level technology, uses semi-automatic inspection.

Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka also has a mid-level technology, uses the semi-automatic machine for fabric inspection.

Shade Segregation

Fabric from different lots may have variations in the shade (batch-to-batch colour variation). Shade variation in a garment occurs when different garment components have a varied depth of colours (shade) or mismatch of shades in garment parts of the same garment. The bundles should be checked for shade variations before putting into the production line.

Machines Used by Different Countries

India

India uses a lightbox for shade segregation. Fabric light box is equipped with multiple light sources, i.e.,

  • D65 (Artificial daylight)
  • White fluorescent light
  • Tungsten filament light
  • Ultraviolet light
  • TL84 (store light)

This device is capable of matching different types of samples like leather, rexine, natural and synthetic fabrics.

China

Industries in China have mid-level technology and mostly use lightbox.

Bangladesh

Bangladesh also has an intermediate level of technology; it also uses a lightbox for shade segregation.

Vietnam

Vietnam has a mid-level technology; it uses a lightbox under designated light sources.

Sri Lanka

Most industries in Sri Lanka also uses a lightbox to ensure accurate colour matching.

Preparing Goods Receipt Note (GRN)

Goods Received Note is a document used to list the inward entry of any goods received at the premises of the organization. To facilitate effective inventory control management, GRN plays a significant role. Preparation of GRNs is important since it facilitates proper inventory control and constrains the entry of undesirable and unauthorized goods into the organization.

Machines Used by Different Countries

India

India uses advanced level technology; it uses ERP generated Goods Received Note. ERP makes it easier to share GRN information to all concerned departments simultaneously including end-users and/or quality/inspection departments, via email, SMS, alerts or notifications as per the workflow specified in ERP. It provides easier, faster, real-time information sharing and saves a lot of paperwork and efforts in manual distribution.

China

China has an advanced level technology for GRP. It uses ERP generated GRN (Goods Received Note)

Bangladesh

Industries in Bangladesh has a mid-level technology; it uses excel based GRN.

Vietnam

Vietnam has an advanced level technology; it uses ERP generated GRN which helps in real-time data sharing.

Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka also has an advanced level technology; it uses ERP generated GRN.

Pattern Making

Pattern making is the process of creating a two-dimensional design representation of a garment using specific equipment, measurement charts and tailoring techniques. It is a design blueprint for apparel before putting the design to implementation and constructing a new garment out.

India

India has a mid-level technology; it uses CAD (computer-aided design). A computer-aided design system is a pattern maker which helps in transforming a sketch into a digital image and then it can be printed out through a plotter. Further, this software pattern maker can justify image efficiency before print out through 2D / 3D special visual effects. It helps in improving accuracy and productivity.

China

China has a mid-level technology; it uses CAD for increasing cutting room productivity.

Bangladesh

Bangladesh has a base level technology; it makes the patterns manually.

Vietnam

Vietnam has a mid-level technology; it uses CAD for accuracy in pattern making.

Sri Lanka

Industries in Sri Lanka also has a mid-level technology; it uses CAD for pattern making.

Cut Order Plan

Cut order planning converts customer orders into cutting order. The fabric for cutting the order is arranged on the cutting table in such a manner as to reduce the total production cost of the order. Cut order planning can be performed manually or by computer.

Machines Used by Different Countries

India

In India, a cut order plan is generally made on an excel sheet. In excel, the number of plies and the sizes on each layer is defined. With the help of formulae, the required number of pieces in every size keeps updating after every entered value in plies and sizes.

China

China has a mid-level technology; it uses excel-based planning and lay slips.

Bangladesh

Bangladesh has a base level technology; it uses manual planning and lay slips

Vietnam

Vietnam has a mid-level technology; it uses excel-based planning and lay slips

Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka has a mid-level technology; it uses excel-based planning and lay slips

Fabric Spreading

Fabric spreading is the method of unfolding large rolls of fabric into long, wide tables in preparation for cutting each piece of a garment. The number of layers of fabric depends on the number of garments desired and fabric thickness. Spreading can be done manually or by machine.

fabri spreading

Machines Used by Different Countries

India

In India generally, semi-automatic laying machines are used for spreading. The semi-automatic spreading machine is a versatile piece of the device for spreading all fabric types. The spreading head is moved manually along the table. The machine is provided with an electronic tension control that enables the spreading of elastic fabrics. The machine is monitored by a touchscreen panel.

China

China has a mid-level technology; it uses semi-automatic laying machines. Some industries also use the fully automatic spreading machine.

Bangladesh

Most industries in Bangladesh has a base level technology, uses manual spreading.

Vietnam

Industries in Vietnam also has a base level technology, uses manual spreading.

Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka has a mid-level technology; it mostly uses semi-automatic laying machines for fabric spreading.

Lay Marking and Plotting

In this process, the various pattern pieces are kept on a layer of fabric in the most efficient way possible in order to maximize the utilization of fabric and then it is marked on the topmost layer of the lay.

lay marking and plotting

Machines Used by Different Countries

India

Most of the industries in India use mid-level CAD marking machines for pattern making and its related jobs such as pattern making, pattern grading and the making of the marker. Using CAD over manual laying drastically reduces the time and manpower required to do these tasks. Another major advantage of using CAD for these purposes is that these files can be remotely accessed from anywhere to work upon it, also these files can be saved for an indefinite period of time.

China

Industries in China also uses the Mid- Level CAD marking machines with an exception of few advanced or high-level machines used by some producers.

Bangladesh

Industries in Bangladesh mostly use base-level technology: i.e., manual laying and marking methods.

Vietnam

Industries in Vietnam mostly use mid-level CAD marking machines although there is a scattered presence of manual laying too.

Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka has mid-level technology and mostly use mid-level CAD marking machines.

Lay Cutting

After lay planning and marking the multiple layers of fabric are cut at a time through various methods as mentioned below:

lay cutting

Machines Used by Different Countries

India

Most industries in India use mid-level technology for lay cutting i.e., flotation tables equipped with straight knives which are operated manually. The main reason for using these machines for cutting is that these machines are portable, versatile, cheaper, more accurate on curves, easy to handle and has low maintenance cost for operating them. Also, the operators don’t need much training in order to operate these machines compared to their counterparts such as Automatic or Computer operated machines.

China

China also uses mid-level technology i.e., flotation tables fitted with straight knives in order to fulfil their cutting needs.

Bangladesh

Most Industries in Bangladesh uses flotation table fitted with straight knives for their cutting needs.

Vietnam

Vietnam also uses mid-level technology methods to fulfil their cutting needs.

Sri Lanka

Sri Lankan industries use mid-level technology for their cutting needs.

Relay of Check Fabrics

Relaying of fabric is an extra precautionary process done for checking any type of bowing or skewing present in the fabric which occurs because of the irregular tension in yarns during the weaving process.

Machines Used by Different Countries

India

In India most industries use mid-level technology for this process: i.e., pintables. The fabric is then laid upon these tables which hold the fabric into place and then an operator checks onto the fabric for any disorientation, mismatch of pattern or designing which was sanctioned by the design department. This process is time-consuming but due to its low cost in operation when compared to its counterparts such as laser-guided pin tables, this method is vastly used in this country due to the aforementioned reasons.

China

China also uses these semi-automatic pin tables for relaying fabrics.

Bangladesh

Bangladesh also uses this mid-level technology for relaying and checking the design of the fabric.

Vietnam

Industries in Vietnam also use semi-automatic pin tables for relaying and checking purpose.

Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka also vastly uses these semi-automatic pin tables for relaying purpose.

Fusing of Panels

In this process, different types of fusing material are sandwiched between the fabrics to reinforce them with the help of temperature and pressure. This process is done to provide structural support to the garment.

Machines Used by Different Countries

India

Most industries in India used the advanced level of machines available for fusing. These machines have various components which can be changed upon will; these are temperature, pressure, speed of the rollers/ belts which can be set upon the type or based upon the property of the fabric. These machines are very much self- capable of operating and at the same time, it minimizes the overall time consumption spent infusing with minimum human intervention. The aforementioned facts are the main reasons these types of machines are vastly popular in the country.

China

Industries in China use these advanced machines to fulfil their fusing purpose for the fabric.

Bangladesh

Industries in Bangladesh also use these high-level Automatic Fusing machines however the use of the semi-automatic machine is scattered.

Vietnam

Vietnam also uses these high-level Automatic machines for the fusing purpose of their fabric.

Sri Lanka

Industries in Sri Lanka also use these high-level Automatic Fusing Machine although just like Bangladesh, the use of Semi-Automatic fusing machine can also be seen.

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