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Textile Printing Process, Type of Printing, and Printing Machinery

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Printing Styles

Direct Style Printing using Pigments on Cotton

Pigments are insoluble coloring matter that can be affixed to the fiber with the help of some binders.  Pigment printing is considered to be one of the simplest direct style printing, which can be applied to all classes of fibers irrespective of their affinity factor.

The main ingredients used in pigment printing are

  • Pigments: Pigments are very fine particles of 0.1 – 3 Micron size.
  • Binders: Binders are film-forming polymers that will form a thin transparent film over the printed surface to protect the print from external agencies.
  • Thickener: Emulsion thickeners like Kerosene emulsion paste or MTO emulsion paste are preferred.
  • Cross-linking agent: External cross-linking agents like melamine-formaldehyde resin may be added to the paste to improve wet fastness.
  • Acid liberating agents: Acidic pH is to be maintained for polymerization & cross linking of the binder.  Acid liberating salts are preferred here.  Diammonium phosphate, Ammonium salts of sulphuric acid (Catalylst LCP) etc., are used for the purpose.
  • Other Chemicals: Urea as hygroscopic agent and silicone softener can also be used in the paste.


Pigment                                             –           X Parts

            Binder                                                –           8 – 12 parts

Fixer / Cross linking agent             –           1 part

DAP / Catalyst LCP                         –           0.5 – 1 Part

Urea                                                   –           2-5 Parts

Kerosene / MTO emulsion paste  –           Remaining


100 Parts



A screen printing machine either table or Rotary is selected for printing purposes depending on the availability of land suitability.  Screens are prepared based on a number of colors used in the motif.

The print paste is prepared using the above recipe and printed on the fabric.  Then the fabric is dried at 120 C. Pigment-printed fabrics are then cured in a polymerize at 15o C for 4-5 minutes.  Then the fabric may be given a mild soaping and washing treatment.

Kerosene is found to be hazardous in nature and the present trend is to replace it fully or partially with acrylic thickeners.

Direct Style Printing of Reactive on Cotton

Reactive dyes form covalent bonds with the fiber and show excellent all-around fastness on cellulosic fabrics.  It has a full range of bright colors.

Cold brand reactive dyes are never preferred for printing.  Hot brand monochlorotriazine dye, Vinyl sulphone dyes, etc.

The main ingredients used in pigment printing are:

  • Alkali: Sodium bicarbonate is the alkali used that will maintain the necessary alkaline pH.
  • Mild Oxidizing Agent: Resist salt, [sodium meta nitro benzene sulphonate. It is used for the purpose which protecting the reactive color from coming out of the print area in the steamer.
  • Urea: Dye dissolution agent while dissolving, hygroscopic agent while steaming, and also helps in better diffusion of dyes.
  • Defoamer: Emulsified pine oil, used as a Defoamer controls the foam.
  • Thickener: Sodium alginate thickeners are highly preferred in the case of reactive printing.


Hot brand reactive dye                                            –           X parts

Sodium bicarbonate                                                –           2-2.5 parts

Resist Salt                                                                 –           1-1.5 parts

Urea                                                                           –           10-15 parts

Defoamer                                                                  –           0.25-0.5%

Sodium alginate                                                       –           35 – 40 parts

Water                                                                          –           Balance


Total                                                                                       100 Parts



Water at 60 C is taken with resist salt, sodium bicarbonate, and sodium alginate powder is added with stirring.  The paste is kept for 8-12 hours.

After that Urea, Defoamer, and finally dissolved reactive dyes are added.

Fabric is printed using the above paste in any one of the printing machines.  Fabric is dried at 120 C.  Dried fabric can be fixed using any one of the following three methods.

  1. Steaming Method
  2. Dry baking Method
  3. Pad – Silicate Method

Steaming Method

The printed fabric is steamed with saturated steam at 102 C for 12 minutes using any one ager like star ager or loop ager.

Dry bake Method

For dry baking, excess urea is taken in the print paste to provide the necessary hygroscopic nature to the fabric.  After drying the fabric is subjected to dry heat at 150 C for 5 minutes.

As sodium silicate is not an ecofriendly chemical, the Pad-Silicate method is less preferred now.

After fixing the print paste, thorough washing with cold water, hot wash, followed by soaping at 80 C with 1-2 gpl non-ionic detergent and then hot wash at 80 C followed by cold wash are given to complete the process. Pad – silicate process is not eco-friendly.

Direct Style of Printing with Disperse Dyes on Polyester

Polyester, being a hydrophobic material, shows no affinity to any dyes.

Disperse dyes can be applied on polyester using direct style printing.

The main ingredients in the paste are:

  • Thickening Agent: Acid-resistant thickeners like CMC, modified guar gum can be used.
  • Acid: Tartaric/Citric acid or an acid liberating agent can be used to maintain the pH at 4-5.
  • Oxidizing agents and Defoamer: Oxidizing agents are used for oxidizing and defoamers to control foams
  • Levelling Agent: To get uniformity in shades, a leveling agent is required.


Disperse dye                                     –           X g

Thickener                                          –           Up to 50 g

Acid                                                    –           to maintain pH at 4-5

Defoamer                                          –           0.5- 1 part

Levelling Agent                                –           1-2 Part

Oxidising Agent                                –           0.5 Part

Water                                                  –           Balance


Total                                                               100 parts



Print paste is prepared with the above chemicals.  Thoroughly prepared polyester fabric is printed with the paste using flatbed or rotary screen printing machine.  Then the fabric is dried.  The goods are then steamed in an HTHP ager at 130 c for 30 minutes or alternatively, the goods are steamed in a loop ager (which is only HT ager) at 175 C for 7-8 minutes.

Washing treatment includes a thorough cold wash, hot wash at 60 C, which is followed by reduction clearing to remove the unfixed dye.

Reduction clearing is done with

Sodium hydrosulphite         –           2 gpl

Sodium hydroxide                –           2 gpl

Nonionic Soap                      –           1 gpl

This treatment is followed by a hot wash at 80 C.  Then the process is completed with a cold wash.

White and Colour Discharge on Disperse Ground

To produce a white or colour discharge printing on disperse dyed polyester fabric, the following steps are followed.

Step 1

Dye the polyester fabric with ground disperse dyes uniformly using HTHP method or by padding the fabric with disperse dyes and other ingredients required for thermosol process of dyeing.  Hight temperature steaming treatment need not to be done now which will be actually taking place while steaming after printing.

Step 2

For producing white discharge, the following recipe is used.

Discharging agent                           –           10-15 parts

(Zinc sulphoxylate formaldehyde)

Citric Acid                                          –           1-2 parts

Antifoaming agent                           –           0.5 parts

Optical Brightener (White-R)          –           0.5-1 part

Fibre Swelling agent                       –           1 part

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Thickener (locust bean gum)         –           50 parts

Water                                                  –           Balance


100 Parts


For producing colour charge, the following recipe is used.

Non dischargeable disperse dyes             –           X Parts

Discharging agent (Stannous chloride)   –           Upto 8 Parts

Citric Acid                                                      –           1 Part

Antifoaming agent                                       –           0.5 Part

Fibre swelling agent                                    –           1 part

Thickener (locus bean gum)                      –           50 part

Water                                                              –           Balance


100 Parts


The dyed polyester fabric obtained from step 1, is printed with anyone of the above recipe (depending upon whether white or colour discharge printing is required) using rotary or flatbed screen printing machine.  The printed fabric is dried at100-120 C.  For white discharge printing, Zinc sulphoxylate formaldehyde is used as the discharging agent as it has more stability to high temperature than Sodium sulphoxylate formaldehyde.  For colour discharge, Stannous chloride serves better.

Step 3

Steaming operation at HTHP ager at 120-130 C for 20-30 minutes is required for the complete discharge in the printed portion.  Alternatively, steaming in HT loop ager at 160-170 for 5-6 minutes can also be done.

Step 4

A thorough washing cycle follows the steaming operation. Cold Wash and mild hot wash are given to the printed fabric.

Reduction cleared at 60-70 C with

Sodium Hydrosulphite                    –           2 gpl

Sodium Hydroxide                           –           2 gpl

For 20 minutes.

Finally, the fabric is hot washed, cold washed, and then dried.

White and Color Resist with Pigments on Reactive Ground

Resist printing on the reactive ground can be produced using acid as a color resisting agent.  As the reactive dyeing is effected only in alkaline pH the presence of acid in the printed areas neutralizes the reactive ground color and resists the development of reactive color at the printed area alone.

For producing white resist on the reactive ground.


Resisting agent (Citric Acid)           –           5-6 parts

Thickener (Locust beam gum)       –           50 parts

Water                                                  –           Balance


100 Parts



For producing color resist using pigments


Pigment                                             –           X parts

Binder                                                –           10-12 parts

Fixer                                                   –           1 parts

Resisting agent Citric Acid)            –           5-6 parts

Kerosene emulsion thickener

  with water                                          –           Balance


100 Parts


The material is printed with any one of the above print paste (depending on whether white or color resistance needs to be produced) and dried.

Reactive color is applied to the fabric by nip padding method using the following recipe.

Reactive Dye                        –           X Parts

Urea                                       –           1/5 fo dye quantity

Sodium bicarbonate            –           10-20 Parts

Resist salt                              –           10-20 pats

Sodium alginate                   –           50 parts

Water                                      –           Balance


1000 Parts

Material is dried at 100 C.  Then the material is steamed at 102 C for 8-10 minutes.  This is followed by a washing sequence, one cold wash and one hot wash at 80 C.  Soaping is given with 1 gpl nonionic detergent at 70-80 C, followed by one hot wash and cold wash.

Batik Style Printing on Reactive Ground

This is a mechanical resist process in which the resist design is applied with hydrophobic wax.  A mixture of paraffin wax is used in the ratio of 1:1 to 1:3 to get good cracking and adhesion effect.  The well-prepared fabric is applied with molten wax by brush or special tools or blocks as per the desired pattern preferably on both sides of the fabric.

The wax is solidified on drying.  The fabric is crushed by hand to form cracks in the waxed area.  This crack will give way for color diffusion during subsequent dyeing.  After cracking, the fabric is dyed using reactive dyes to the required ground shade and washed with cold water.  The wax is removed by treating in the hot water bath at 70-80 C followed by hot soap and cold wash.  The dewaxed area produces a white resist pattern with fine hair-line cracks which are not reproducible by other means.

Batik printing is a traditional art expressing culture, tradition, and civilization.  It claims good aesthetic appeal.  Multicolored resist effects are also possible by repeated waxing and dyeing operations.

Textile Printing Products

Label Printing Machine

Textile Label Printing Machines The printing principle Flexo label printing machine is to let ink transfer to flexo plate cylinder via high-precision anilox roller. Then impress the picture on the textile belt surface by plate cylinder directly. It can make high-speed printing for cloth, textile, and rolling paper. The ink layer is thick and solid. The color duration is good. The plate cylinder can be changed at a whim and change the length of printing. Product Specification/Models 4C+2C Label Printing Machine – MK4002R


  • Label Length : 10.0 mm ~ 294.0 mm
  • Label Width : 4 mm ~ 140 mm
  • Speed : 0 ~ 1.2 m/s Power : 220V AC 50 – 60Hz 2.5 KW
  • Dimensions : 760 mm (W) x 1333 mm (L) x 1900 mm (H)
  • Net weight : 580 KG
  • Printing : 4C + 2C

Textile Hot Stamping Foil

This is a kind of hot stamping foil which stamping on textile, such as candy bags for marriage and indian’s beautiful clothes sarees and some of the large piece curtain and so on. It can make your clothes more beautiful.

Mini Ball Valve


  • Little cubage
  • good appearance
  • long life Operating fast
  • low pressure expending Perfect sealing
  • it could work in a vacuum of 740mm HG.


  • Textile printing & dying
  • chemical industry
  • brewage
  • foodstuff industry,
  • water disposal.

Sodium Alginate

In Printing and Textile Industry It has been a long history since sodium alginate has been used in warp sizing, packing, and printing. In the printing, food industries Sodium alginate is widely used in food industry. A. Synthetic Food Sodium alginate is the main material of seaweed, synthetic grape, and synthetic cherry. B. Iced Food

Viscose Rayon Flock Powder

Precision cut and ground mix viscose (rayon) flock powder with different dtex, cutting lengths, and colours. You can send your own color and flock sample for perfect matching

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  1. Textile Buying House says

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  2. Alice Carroll says

    It’s interesting to know that color pastes are also often used on textile equipment. I’m interested in learning more about that because such machinery will be needed for a new business that I plan to open. Being able to get them at an affordable price would be very ideal.


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