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Common fabric defects and its causes

Common Defects of Fabrics during manufacturing process includes back fabric seam impression, birds eye, bowing, broken colour pattern, colour out, colour smears, crease mark, drop stitching, dye streak in printing, hole, jerk in, knots, mixed yarn, mottled, needle line, open reed, pin holes, press off etc.

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Often inspectors are given the responsibility of inspecting finished garments without adequate training in fabric defects and their causes. The ultimate solution, of course, is to provide actual examples or photographs of both major and minor defects. This section provides a list of defects and explanations and simplifies the language and the judgments used in making visual fabric evaluations. The Quality Control Manager can provide this list to inspectors as a practical tool for achieving uniform inspection decisions.

Major and Minor Defects

The following definitions are central to fabric inspection:

Major Defect

A defect that, if conspicuous on the finished product, would cause the item to be a second. (A “second” is a garment with a conspicuous defect that affects the salability or serviceability of the item.

Minor Defects

A defect that would not cause the product to be termed a second either because of severity or location. When inspecting piece goods prior to cutting, it is necessary to rate questionable defects as a major, since the inspector will not know where the defect may occur on the item.

Fabric Defect Depictions

Fabric defect due to hole
Fabric defect due to the hole
Fabric defect due to stain
Fabric defect due to stain
Float defect in the fabric
Float defect in the fabric
Fabric weft yarn defect
Fabric weft yarn defect
Fabric warp yarn defect
Fabric warp yarn defect
Double pick defect in fabric
Double pick defect in the fabric
Double end defect in the fabric
Double end defect in the fabric
Insufficient weft density defect in fabric
Insufficient weft density defect in the fabric
Excessive weft density defect in fabric
Excessive weft density defect in the fabric
Fabric broken pick defect
Fabric broken pick defect
Broken end defect in fabric
Broken end defect in the fabric

Glossary of Defects

DefectCauseSeverity
Skewed or BiasCondition where filling yarns are not square with wrap yarns on woven fabrics or where courses are not square with wale lines on knits.Major or Minor
Back Fabric Seam ImpressionBacking fabric is often used to cushion fabric being printed. If there is a joining seam in the backing fabric, an impression will result on printed fabric.Major
BarreOccurs in circular knit. Caused by mixing yarn on feed into the machine. Fabric will appear to have horizontal streaks.Usually Major
Birds EyeBirds eye often caused by unintentional tucking from malfunctioning needle. Usually two small distorted stitches caused side by side.Major or Minor depending on severity
Burl MarkWhen a slub or extra piece of yarn is woven into the fabric, it is often removed by a “burling tool.”This will usually leave an open place in the fabric.Major
BowingUsually caused by finishing. Woven filling yarns lie in an arc across fabric width. It is critical on stripes or patterns and not as critical on solid color fabrics.Major or Minor
Broken Color PatternUsually caused by colored yarn out of place on the frame.Major
Color OutColor out is the result of color running low in a reservoir on the printing machine.Major
Color SmearsColor Smears are the result of color being smeared during printing.Major or Minor
Crease MarkDiffers from crease streak in that streak will probably appear for an entire roll. Crease mark appears when creases are caused by fabric folds in the finishing process. Often discoloration is a problem.Major
Crease StreakOccurs in tubular knits. Results from creased fabric passing through squeeze rollers in dyeing process.Depending on the product.Usually Major
Drop StitchingDrop stitching results from malfunctioning needle or jack appearing as holes or missing stitches.Major
Dropped PickCaused by the filling insertion mechanism on a shuttleless loom not holding the filling yarn,causing the filling yarn to be woven without tension. The filling yarn appears as “kinky”.There will also be areas of “end out”.Major
DrawbacksCaused by excessive loom tension gradually applied by some abnormal restriction. When the restriction is removed the excess slack is woven into the fabric. Usually the ends are brokenMajor
Dye Streak in PrintingResults from a damaged doctor blade or a blade not cleaned properly. Usually a long streak until the operator notices the problem.Major
End outCaused by yarn breaking and loom continuing to run with the missing end.MajorJerk-in Caused by an extra piece of filling yarn being jerked part way into the fabric by the shuttle. The defect will appear at the selvage.Usually Major
HoleHoles in fabrics are usually caused by the broken needle.Major
Jerk InJerk Ins is caused by an extra piece of filling yarn being jerked part way into the fabric by the shuttle. The defect will appear at the selvage.Major or Minor
KnotsKnots are caused by tying spools of yarn together.Usually Minor
Missing YarnOccurs in circular knit. Caused by one end of yarn missing from feed and machine continuing to run.Major
Mixed FillingCaused by bobbin of lightweight yarn or different fiber blend used in filling. Will appear as a distinct shade change.Major
Mixed YarnMixed yarn is a different fiber blend used on the warp frame, resulting in a streak in the fabric.Usually Major
MottledMottles occurs when colors applied unevenly during printing.Major or Minor
Needle LineNeedle Line is caused by bent needle forming distorted stitches in a vertical line.Major or Minor
Open ReedOpen reed are the results from a bent reed wire causing warp ends to be held apart, exposing the filling yarn.Major
Pin HolesPin holes along selvage caused by pins holding fabric while it processes through tender frame.
Major> if pin holes extend into the body of fabric far enough to be visible in the finished product
Major
Press OffPress Off occurs when all or some of the needles on circular knitting fail to function. Fabric either falls off the machine or design is completely disrupted or destroyed.Major
Printing Machine Stop MarkDye or ink smudged along the width of fabric as a result of the printing machine stopping.
Print Out of RepairCaused by print rollers not being synchronized properly. This results in various colors of the design not being printed in the proper position.
Puckered SelvageUsually caused by selvage being stretched in finishing or by uneven wetting out in sanforization process.Major
RunnerRunner is a caused by the broken needle. The runner will appear as a vertical line. Most machines have a stopping device to stop the machine when a needle breaks.Major or Minor
Sanforize PuckerUsually caused by defective spray heads resulting in uneven wetting out of Sanforize. Fabric will appear wavy or pucker when spread on cutting table. It is difficult to detect while inspecting on inspection machine with fabric under roller tension.Major or Minor
ScrimpScrip is the result of fabric being folded or creased when passing through tender frames.Major
SkewingSkewing refers to a condition where filling yarns are not square with warp yarns on woven fabrics or where courses are not square with wale lines on knits. It happens when the fabric shrinks more perpendicular to the twill line than along the twill line.
SlubSlub refers to thick or heavy places in the yarn or flying waste yarn getting into yarn feeds during the spinning process. Slub and other inconsistencies are common in fabrics produced on vintage shuttle looms.Major or Minor
SmashSmall caused by a number of ruptured warp ends that has been repairedMajor
Soiled FillingSoiled filling is dirty oily looking spots on the warp or filling yarns, or on packaged-dye yarn.Can be Major or Minor
Stop MarkStop mark occurs when the loom is stopped, the yarn elongates under tension. When the loom starts again, the slack is woven into the fabric.Can be major or Minor
Straying EndStraying End is caused when an end of yarn breaks and the loose end strays and is knit irregularly into another area.
Thin PlaceThin Place is often caused by the filling yarn breaking and the loom continuing to run until the operator notices the problem.Major
Water SpotsWater spots are usually caused by wet fabric being allowed to remain too long before drying, Color migrates leaving blotchy spots.Major
PillingPilling refers to the forming of little-matted balls on the surface of knitted fabrics. Pilling occurs when soft yarn rubs against itself, resulting in tangled fibers and produces an uneven and worn look.

 

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2 Comments
  1. Allison Slavis says

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  2. SANJAY KULSHRESTHA says

    CLASSIFICATION OF FABRICS DEFECTS
    YARN RELATED
    WEAVING RELATED / KNITTING RELATED
    PROCESSING RELATED
    PRINT RELATED
    As per 4 point ASQC inspection system defects may again classify as
    1 POINT DEFECTS ,3″ MINOR
    2 POINT DEFECTS 3″ -6 ” MINOR
    3 POINT DEFECTS 6″ – 9 “MAJOR
    4 POINT DEFECTS > 9 ” CUT ABLE MAJOR
    APPEARANCE OF FABRICS DOES NOT BELONGS TO THE POINT SYSTEM AS BECAUSE ITS CONSIDER AS ACCEPT OR REJECTS
    ALL DEFECTS MUST DETECTED ON INSPECTION MACHINE UNDER OVER LIGHT MINIMUM 1000 LUX WITH SPEED OF 10 – 15 MTR. / MINUTE
    NO FREQUENT STOP SHOULD BE THERE , ( THERE IS A BIG DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SKILL OF DETECTION AND FABRICS INSPECTION )

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