Benefits of Compact Ring Spun Yarn in Other Spun Yarns
In 1991, textile researchers at Universities in Eastern Europe introduced a change in the traditional manufacture of ring-spun yarn. Condensation of the roving web prior to entering the spinning triangle produced a less hairy and more compact yarn structure. Surface
fibers from the condensed roving provided reduced protruding surface hair and a smaller diameter yarn. The reduction of surface fiber
produced a smoother and more uniform yarn with enhanced physical properties. In comparison to conventional ring spinning, compact
ring spinning has improved performance in each step of the fabric formation process.
The success achieved with compact ring spun yarn was published in collaboration with industry partners on a regular basis. A generalized
summary may be found in the following publication. (Textile Today: “Effects of Compact Spinning on Yarn Quality”, January 1, 2011).
Compact ring spun yarn has finally gained traction in both knitted and woven fabric after being introduced 30+ years ago in Eastern Europe Work cited is listed following this article.
The benefits proven with “Compact Ring Spun Yarn” validates that each step of the fabric formation process is dependent upon quality
Compact ring spinning is not applicable to other methods of yarn formation. However, the knowledge gained has now been applied to benefit woven fabric manufacture with other spun yarns. Yarn compaction has now been accomplished utilizing the existing process currently in place to minimize loom abrasion in weaving. The sizing process provides the medium to apply very low molecular weight polymers (oligomers) to fibers within warp yarn.
Designed oligomers are non-film forming materials which provide minimal effect to the barrier properties of higher molecular weight polymers normally used to protect the yarn surface in the weaving process. Surface anionic forces provide fiber separation and enhance drafting to form the yarn bundle. These surface anionic forces maintain fiber separation and provide empty areas between fibers in spun yarns. Variable empty spacing between fiber surfaces in the yarn measure in microns to provide the benefits associated with these yarns. Oligomers added to warp size formulations are much smaller than the voids between fibers in the yarn bundle.
The size and adhesive nature of oligomer particles immediately attach to fiber surfaces. An effective transient neutralization of repulsive forces present permit fibers to assume a more intimate and cohesive yarn bundle. Inducing fiber compaction at the size box offers the benefits seen from “Compact Ring Spinning” to other methods of spun yarn formation.
Oligomer polymers incorporated into size formulations require a new perspective of yarn traveling through the size box. Oligomer particles are actually smaller in size than the associated water that carries the oligomer throughout the yarn bundle.It must be noted that fiber cohesion imparted by oligomer additives does not resist surface hard fiber pullout as well as the mechanical effect provided in “Compact Ring Spinning”. However, enhanced fiber cohesion effects are noted throughout and yield a smaller sized yarn.
In the size box: Oligomer penetration of warp yarn occurs immediately upon wet out at the immersion roll. The nature of the particles adhere and modify fiber surfaces to enhance fiber cohesion in the bundle. The more compact wet yarn is then available to accept the higher molecular weight polymer barrier film on the surface. The “sized” yarn then continues through the drying process to the bust section.
At the Lease:
Improved fiber cohesion created by oligomer compaction becomes apparent as the hard sheet is separated into individual hard yarn. Enhanced cohesion between fibers within the yarn is more resistant to sized fiber pullout from the surface of the hard yarn. After the bust, less hairy and more compact sized yarn is delivered to the loom beam. Reduced fiber and size shed is seen at the lease.
At the Loom Beam:
A reduced diameter yarn with reduced protruding sized surface fiber typically allows more hard yarn to be collected on the loom beam.
At the Loom:
Production of a more uniform sized yarn with improved physical properties reduces both warp and filling stops. Reduced fiber/size shed is produced in the weaveroom. The use of oligomer materials to improve yarn quality allows reduction of synthetic film formers with less expensive natural materials. Reduction is dependent upon the sley of the fabric style. Although oligiomers in the yarn reduce fiber pullout, forces generated in breaking the yarn sheet still produce a level of protruding surface fibers.Desize: The transient effect provided by incorporation of oligomer in the warp size formulation is removed in conventional desize procedures.
Warp yarn with higher fiber cohesion possesses enhanced physical properties and smaller diameter. Better yarn provides improved weaving performance. Better yarn reduces the use of expensive synthetic surface polymers in the conventional size formulation.
- A smoother break at the lease
- Reduced size/fiber shed at the lease
- Increased hard yarn on the loom beam
- Reduced warp stops on the loom
- Reduced filling stops on the loom
- Reduced size/fiber shed in weaving
- Reduced size cost
The following photographs illustrate the cohesive effects in warp yarn. The upper hard yarn pictured contains the fiber cohesive additive in the standard size formulation. Comparisons of the core of conventional hard yarns with the same styling + oligomer illustrate diameter reductions of 15-20%.
The following references provide a good review of the work done in
“Compact Ring Spinning” to 2011.
Textile Today References
1. 11Brunk N., “Three Years of Practical Experience with the EliTe Spinning”, Spinnovation No 17,3/2002
2. Brunk N., “EliTe CompactSet-The Third Generation”, Spinnovation No 19, 10/2003
3. Die ringspinnmaschine Fiomax-5 Jahre nach der Marketeinfuhrung, Melliand Textilberrichte 1998, No 5
4. Kadoglu H.: Einige Qualitatsaspekte beim Kampactspinnen. Melliand Textilberrichte 2001, No 3, p.130
5. Ozipek B., Hossoy Llk Conference Cairo, March 2002
6. Prospects of the Sessen Company: “Spinning machines Fiomax 1000 and Fiomax 1000 E1”
7. Rusch B.: 2nd generation of Comforspin compact yarns. Melliand International 2001, No 4, p.28
8. Spinnovation 12/99, 16/01, 17/02
9. Stahlecker P.: Spinning System-18 Months after ITMA in Paris, Spinnovation No 12/2000, p.6
10. Stahlecker P., “EliTe CompactSet. Recent Developments and Applications”, 62nd Plenary Meeting of the International Cotton Advisory Committee, GdaA,sk, Poland September 7-12, 2003
11.Stalder H, Rusch.: Successful compact spinning process. International Textile Bulletin, 2002, No 1, p.42
12. Stalder H., Hellsig A.: International Federation of Knitting Technology, Budapest, Hungary, October 2000
13. Stal H., Hellwig A.: Vorteile and neue Moglishkeiter durch COM4-Garn im Gestrick, Melliand Textilberichte 2001, No 3, p. 138 Grateful acknowledgement for information furnished by Rieter America, Spartanburg, SC