One unit of confirmation of thread resulting from repeatedly passing a strand or strands or loops of thread into or through a material is called a stitch. There are two basic stitch formations, lock stitch and chain stitch. In all cases the stitch develops from the formation of a loop in the needle thread as the needle rises from its lowest point. This loop is either inter-looped with the preceding loop or inter-looped with other threads, or interlaced with an under thread in lockstitch.
What is stitch?
One unit of confirmation of thread resulting from repeatedly passing a strand or strands or loops of thread into or through a material is called a stitch.
|Intra-looping – is passing of a loop of thread through another loop formed by the same thread, example stitch type 101.|
|Interlooping – is passing of a loop of thread through another loop formed by a different thread, example stitch type 401.|
|Interlacing – is passing of a thread over or around another thread or loop of another thread, example stitch type 301.|
Stitch types can be formed by:
- Without a material
- Inside material
- Through material
- On material
Stitch types of designation
Textile stitch types-classification and terminology, stitches are catalogued into six classes (as per BS3870/ASTM D-6193/ISO 4915:1991). The international and standardization uses the identical numbering.
is chain stitch type, is formed with one or more needle threads introduced from one side of the material only.
- chain stitch is elastic and thicker than lockstitch and can easily be ravelled;
- particular care is required to prevent runback from the last stitch.
- Used for temporary stitching or for Blind stitching.
is a hand stitch type, is formed by single thread passed from one side of the material to the other in successive needle penetrations.
- a slow process and need huge manpower to finish bulk order.
- Used for handwork.
is a lock stitch type, is formed by a needle thread or threads, introduced from one side of the material, interlacing with an under thread
- supplied from a bobbin on the other side.
- low bulk and thin, good strength and abrasion resistance
- Poor elasticity, non ravel
- limited sewing length, need to replace bobbin thread.
- for seams requiring stretch.
is multi thread chain stitch type, is formed with two/more groups of threads having general characteristic of interlacing interloping of the loops of the two groups.
- non ravel, strong, good elasticity, less likely to cause seam pucker due to structural jamming
- good seam stretch
- does not need to wind bobbin
- lower resistance to runback and have increased bulk under the seam
is over lock over edge stitch type, is formed with one or more needles and/or loopier threads with at least one thread passing round the edge of the material being sewn.
- Excellent stretchable good recovery
- Seam or edge neatening
- suitable for many types of fabric
- subject to fraying or slippage.
is formed with two or more groups of threads, has for a general characteristic that two groups of thread cover surfaces of the material.
- High elasticity, seam neatening and Flat seam stitch, Bulk, Fast machine speed
- No need of Bobbin
- Greater thread consumption
- Covering stitches for decorative purpose, Can be used to join two raw edges, suitable for knitted garments.
Combination of stitch types:
is formed when two or more rows of stitches of different classes are formed simultaneously in one separation.
- These are denoted by using two individual stitch type designations, joined with a dot for example 401.504
- Save time, labour, cost.
- more investment required