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Water Jet Weaving Machines

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Water Jet machines are extensively used in East Asia. They are characterized in particular by high insertion performance and low energy consumption. These machines are produced only by few companies and are used for the manufacture of light and medium weight fabrics with standard characteristics and in water-repellent fiber materials, primarily multi-filament synthetic yarns. They are characterized in particular by high insertion performance and low energy consumption.

Water jet weaving machines, also known as water jet looms, are a type of textile weaving machinery that uses water as a primary means to insert the weft yarn into the warp shed during the weaving process. These machines are known for their efficiency, speed, and versatility in weaving a wide range of textile materials. Below is an overview of water jet weaving machines, their working principles, advantages, and applications:

These machines are produced only by few companies and are used for the manufacture of light and medium weight fabrics with standard characteristics and in water-repellent fiber materials, primarily multi-filament synthetic yarns. Water jet machines are extensively used in East Asia, but have limited importance in other countries. They are characterized in particular by high insertion performance and low energy consumption.

Water jet weaving machines have played a significant role in modern textile manufacturing due to their efficiency and versatility. They continue to be an important part of the textile industry, contributing to the production of a wide range of textile products used in everyday life and various industries.

Working Principle

Water jet weaving machines operate on the principle of using high-pressure water jets to propel weft yarns across the warp yarns, creating interlacing patterns to form the fabric. The key components and steps in the process include:

  1. Warp Beams: The warp yarns are wound onto warp beams, which are positioned at the back of the loom.
  2. Shed Formation: The warp yarns are separated into two layers to create a shed, which is an opening through which the weft yarn will be inserted.
  3. Nozzles: High-pressure water jets are generated by nozzles that shoot water through a small opening. These water jets carry the weft yarn across the warp yarns.
  4. Weft Insertion: As the water jets propel the weft yarn across the shed, the weft yarn gets interlaced with the warp yarns to form the fabric.
  5. Take-Up Mechanism: A take-up mechanism winds the woven fabric onto a cloth roller.

Advantages of Water Jet Weaving Machines

  1. High Speed: Water jet weaving machines are known for their high weaving speed, making them suitable for large-scale production.
  2. Versatility: These machines can weave a wide range of fabrics, including plain weaves, twills, and satin weaves, with various yarn types, including filament and spun yarns.
  3. Reduced Noise: Water jet looms are quieter in operation compared to air jet looms, making them suitable for use in noise-sensitive environments.
  4. Minimal Energy Consumption: They require less energy compared to some other types of looms.
  5. Low Maintenance: Water jet weaving machines are relatively easy to maintain due to their simple mechanical design.

Applications

Water jet weaving machines are commonly used in the production of various textile products, including:

  1. Apparel Fabrics: Water jet looms are used to manufacture fabrics for clothing, such as cotton, polyester, and blends.
  2. Home Textiles: They are employed to produce fabrics for bed linens, curtains, upholstery, and towels.
  3. Technical Textiles: Water jet weaving machines can weave technical textiles used in applications like automotive upholstery, airbags, and geotextiles.
  4. Industrial Textiles: They are used to create textiles for conveyor belts, filters, and other industrial applications.
  5. Fashion Fabrics: Water jet looms are used to create fashion fabrics with various patterns and designs.
  6. Medical Textiles: These machines can produce textiles used in medical gowns, drapes, and other healthcare applications.

Water jet weaving machines have played a significant role in modern textile manufacturing due to their efficiency and versatility. They continue to be an important part of the textile industry, contributing to the production of a wide range of textile products used in everyday life and various industries.

Operation principle

The figure shows how the machine operates. The weft yarn, which is fed from cone 7, is drawn-off by a feeding and measuring device 2 and then passes through a tension regulator 3 and a weft clamp 4. When the insertion has to take place, the weft clamp loosens its hold and the thread inserted inside a nozzle 1 is struck by a jet of pressurized water and launched through the shed at high speed.

After the insertion has taken place, while the weft is held flat by the threads which are moved by the leno mechanisms 5, the thermal knives 14 enter into action on the launch side to cut the weft, and on the opposite side to trim the fabric. A yarn clamping device 13 holds the weft waste which is cut off by the right-handed thermal knife while rotating gears arrange for its removal (center selvedge).

The water is conveyed by a pump 8, provided with a filter, the piston of which is controlled by a
cam 10 producing the phases of water suction from the container 9 and of water supply to nozzle 1.

The sequence of the launch phases is the following:

  • The pump 8 enters into action and the initial water jet serves only to straighten the residual small piece of weft, from nozzle 1 to thermal knife 14.
  • This action, which has a duration time varying from 5 to 30 rotation degrees of the main shaft, depends on the yarn count and is named guide angle.
  • The yarn flight forms a so-called flight angle, leaving clamp 4 open to permit to the pressurized water jet to insert the weft thread into the shed.
  • The clamp opening time varies according to reed width and to loom running speed. On yarn exit from the shed, there is an electrical feeler or an infrared sensor which checks the presence of the weft end and makes the machine to stop in case of absence of the weft.

A drying device removes the humidity absorbed by the fabric, sucking it through grooves produced in the front beam 6 of the machine. A maximum of two weft colors can be inserted (weft mixer).

water jet loom

 

Waterjet Weaving Machines

Water jet weaving machines, often referred to as water jet looms, are manufactured by various companies around the world. These machines may have specific model names or numbers, but they are typically associated with the companies that produce them. Here are some well-known manufacturers of water jet weaving machines:

  1. Toyota Industries Corporation:
    • Toyota produces water jet weaving machines under the brand name “Toyota Textile Machinery.” Some of their popular models include the Toyota JAT 710, JAT 810, and JAT 910.
  2. Picanol:
    • Picanol, a Belgian company, manufactures water jet looms under the brand name “OmniPlus Summum.” Their machines are known for their versatility and high-speed weaving capabilities.
  3. Tsudakoma Corporation:
    • Tsudakoma, based in Japan, produces water jet looms known for their precision and performance. Popular models include the ZAX-N and ZAX-E.
  4. Somet:
    • Somet, part of the Italian Savio Group, is known for its water jet weaving machines that offer advanced weaving technology. The Thema SuperExcel is one of their renowned models.
  5. Itema Group:
    • Itema, an Italian manufacturer, produces water jet looms under the brand name “Itema.” Their product range includes models like the Itema A9500 and A9500p.
  6. Bonas Textile Machinery NV:
    • Bonas specializes in Jacquard weaving machines, including water jet looms. Their machines are often used for producing intricate patterns and designs.
  7. Dornier:
    • Dornier, a German manufacturer, offers water jet weaving machines known for their quality and innovation. The Dornier A1 and A3 are some of their popular models.
  8. Smit Textile:
    • Smit Textile, part of the Swiss company Saurer Group, produces water jet looms under the brand name “Smit.” Their machines are used for weaving technical textiles and fashion fabrics.
  9. Vamatex:
    • Vamatex, a subsidiary of the Swiss company Itema Group, manufactures water jet weaving machines known for their efficiency and productivity.
  10. Sulzer:
    • Sulzer, a global company, offers weaving solutions, including water jet looms. Their machines are known for their reliability and advanced technology.

These are some of the prominent manufacturers of water jet weaving machines. Each company may have several models with specific features and capabilities to cater to different textile production needs. When selecting a water jet weaving machine, textile manufacturers often consider factors such as weaving speed, versatility, precision, and the specific requirements of their production processes.

Countries where the Waterjet Weaving Machines are Used

Water jet weaving is a popular and widely used textile manufacturing technique in various countries around the world. Its popularity stems from its efficiency, versatility, and suitability for a wide range of textile applications. Here are some countries where water jet weaving is popular:

  1. Japan: Japan has a long history of textile innovation and is known for its advanced weaving technology. Japanese manufacturers like Toyota, Tsudakoma, and Somet produce high-quality water jet weaving machines that are used both domestically and internationally.
  2. Italy: Italy is renowned for its textile industry, and water jet weaving machines are commonly used in Italian textile manufacturing. Companies like Itema and Somet are well-established manufacturers of water jet looms in Italy.
  3. Belgium: Belgium is home to Picanol, a leading manufacturer of water jet looms. Picanol’s water jet weaving machines, such as the OmniPlus Summum, are used worldwide.
  4. India: India has a thriving textile industry, and water jet weaving is popular for producing a wide range of fabrics, including cotton, silk, and synthetic textiles. Indian textile manufacturers often use water jet looms for efficiency and productivity.
  5. China: China is one of the largest producers of textiles globally, and water jet weaving machines are widely adopted in the country’s textile mills. Chinese manufacturers produce both domestic and international brands of water jet looms.
  6. Turkey: Turkey is known for its textile exports, and water jet weaving is commonly used for producing a variety of textiles, including denim, upholstery, and home textiles.
  7. Switzerland: Switzerland is home to textile machinery companies like Saurer Group, which manufactures water jet weaving machines under the brand Bonas. These machines are used for intricate pattern weaving.
  8. Germany: German textile machinery companies, including Dornier, produce water jet looms known for their quality and precision. These machines are used in various textile applications.
  9. Pakistan: Pakistan’s textile industry utilizes water jet weaving for producing fabrics like cotton and blends. The efficiency of water jet looms is beneficial for the country’s textile manufacturers.
  10. Indonesia: Indonesia has a growing textile sector, and water jet weaving machines are employed for producing textiles used in both domestic and export markets.
  11. Bangladesh: Bangladesh’s textile industry utilizes water jet weaving for producing garments and textiles for export. The efficiency of these machines is crucial for meeting global demand.
  12. South Korea: South Korean textile manufacturers use water jet looms for various applications, including sportswear, fashion fabrics, and technical textiles.
  13. United States: While the textile industry in the United States has declined over the years, water jet weaving is still used for niche applications, including technical textiles and specialty fabrics.

These countries represent a diverse range of regions where water jet weaving is popular, reflecting the global nature of the textile industry and the widespread adoption of this efficient weaving technology. The choice of water jet weaving machines depends on factors such as the type of textiles being produced, production volume, and quality requirements.

5 Comments
  1. Ghayar says

    This post is very informative. One who has interest in machines and auto spare parts, car parts, Car battery, should visit the website of Ghayar.ae

  2. Rishabh says

    Could you please tell me that which type of fabric is used in this machines and its market

  3. rakesh says

    3000 LTR if u work 23 hour

  4. Darshan says

    How much water does an waterjet loom consume in a day in average?

  5. Nimesh Patel says

    Really nice information, i was always curious about how water jet machine works. Very informative post. Thank you for sharing.
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