Special Textile Finishes
Special finishes are done on textile materials to enable it to use for special purposes such as the finishing of fabrics with flame retardants can reduce the tendency to burn or reduce the tendency to propagate the flame. Laminating is the permanent joining of two or more prefabricated fabrics.
Fire Retardant Finish
The finishing of fabrics with flame retardants can reduce the tendency to burn or reduce the tendency to propagate the flame. The flame retardants may char the fuel, quench the reaction of combustion, absorb heat or emit cooling gases or replace oxygen. Flame retardants are durable or nondurable. Durable retardants include decabromodiphenyl oxide, antimony oxide, phosphates, brominated esters, PVC and other chlorinated binders. Nondurables include borates, boric acids, zinc borate, sulfuric acid sulfamates, ammonium phosphates, urea, etc. Hydrated alumina and zinc borate act as smoke suppressants. Problems in the application include odor, yellowing, loss of tensile strength, stiffening, skin irritation and a color change or loss.
Soil Release Finish
The soil release chemicals reduce the problem of soiling in two ways: repel the stains and soil using repellents such as fluorochemicals or create a surface that aids the removal of soils when cleaning or laundering using chemicals based on polyacrylic acid.
Flocking is a process of making a two-dimensional fabric have a third dimension. It is done by mechanically or commonly electrostatically. Depending on how the adhesive is applied, the whole surface can be flocked or patterns can be made. The adhesives are just like what is used in laminating and include polyvinyl chloride plastisols, polyurethane bicomponent adhesives and all kinds of aqueous dispersion adhesives.
Laminating is the permanent joining of two or more prefabricated fabrics. Unless one or other of the fabrics develops adhesive properties in certain conditions, an additional medium is necessary to secure bonding.
Adhesives used in the wet process are dissolved or dispersed in a suitable solvent. The simplest form of wet laminating consists of applying the adhesive to one of the lengths of material that is to be joined, and to put the second length on it with the required amount of pressure.Then drying, hardening or condensing the material that has been joined together is carried out. The solvents can be macromolecular natural or synthetic substances and water.
All Kinds of thermoplastics are used for dry laminating. These include powders, plastisols, or melt adhesives, and are applied to the substrates that are to be joined together using suitable machinery. Dry laminated non-woven fabrics have a soft feel.
The coating is a basic and exceptionally important form of finishing for non-woven bonded fabrics. The way in which the coating is carried out depends on the substrate, the machinery available, the substance that is to be applied and, also to the effect desired.
It is one of the best-known methods of direct coating. The coating is put on with a rotary roller, the surface of which is covered in the substance to be applied. The slop padding roller is fed directly with the laminating float by being dipped into it or using special feed rollers.