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Yarn to Fabric Manufacturing

A case study on spun yarn production to fabrics and finishing processes in a real-time production environment

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Afterthecompletespinningprocess, cones are being again twisted in post spinning section. In this, two cones are being used to wind up one cone with a higher twist. The method of twisting two or more single yarns is called doubling or folding or ply twisting. Such yarns are designated as doubled yarn, folded yarn, or plied yarn and the machines intended for the purpose are called doublers, ply-twisters of two-for-one (TFO) twisters.

TFO machines give a reverse or opposite twist that is being given in the spinning process i.e. Z- the twist is being given in the spinning department but after it is being rewarded in the TFO section, the cones are given S-twist.

The twist in the yarn is the number arrived by the ratio of the spindle speed to the delivery of the yarn. Both the factors are controlled by mechanical means and depend on the speed transmitted by the rotating parts.


S.No. Technical Specification
1 Machine used Leewha, Prerna, Italy
2 Total no. of machines installed 43
3 Total no. of spindles in one machine 144 spindles
4 Production 42kg /shift
5 Total number of workers 16/shift
6 The capacity of yarn twist 8 ton per day
7 Speed 7000rpm


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Figure 3.0: TFO machine



After cones are reminded in TFO machines, they are put into the steamer. It is done so as to avoid the snarling effect and also a twist of the yarn which is given is being set. The steamer also gives a conditioning effect to the yarn.


S.No. Technical Specifications
1 Capacity of steamer 450kg-550kg
2 Time taken 2 hours
3 The temperature required for wool and polyester 90-95 ℃


Figure 3.1: Steaming Machine
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