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METHOD STUDY IN GARMENT INDUSTRY

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USE OF METHOD STUDY IN GARMENT INDUSTRY

Method study is essentially concerned with finding better ways of doing things, and it contributes to improved efficiency by getting rid of unnecessary work, avoidable delays and other forms of waste. It can be used in any kind of industry. In this section, few examples are given which shown how method study is used in the garment industry.

CASE STUDIES

CASE STUDY 1: Dead Stock in Factory

  • It was observed that approximately 10,000 metres of fabric were collected in the fabric store in the last 2 months of which 50% was liability fabric and the rest was surplus from the production.
  • The monthly fabric consumption of the factory was 50,000 metres.
  • Deadstock was collected in one month owing to a production surplus was 2,500 metres.
  • This is 5% of the monthly fabric consumption of the company. In the “Average Factory” this loss amounts to Rs. 16,50,000 per annum.

CASE STUDY 2: Fabric Purchasing in Factory

The fabric purchasing in factory XYZ is being done as follows:

  1. A 2 or 4 body single size marker is made and an average consumption figure is established.
  2. A further 10% is added and the cost of the garment is established.
  3. After alterations, required by the buyer, a new 4 body single or double size marker is made, this is compared to the original costing.
  4. An additional 4% is added to the final consumption marker.
  5. Another 6-7% is added to the fabric consumption this is to cover the following: a. Additional garments that could be sent to the buyer. b. Rejects.
  6. A further 6% shrinkage factor is added.

This amounts to 16.5% extra fabric ordered.

Recommendation for case 1 and case 2

  1. Dead Stock must be eliminated.
  2. Stock cards must be used and updated after each transaction.
  3. Fabric widths must be segregated and information given to the CAD department to make most efficient markers.
  4. Fabric must be issued by width.
  5. Storage and material handling equipment must be improved.
  6. Random Stock Audits and Stock Checks must be part of the regular schedule.
  7. Fabric reconciliations must be done for each order.
  8. Stock holding of greige fabric should be reduced.

CASE STUDY 3: M/A Ratio Study in Factory

This is a study to establish what the operators are capable of:

M = Measured (Timed)

The research team timed each operation for 3-5 cycles to get the time taken by the operator.

The measured time = 23.3 minutes + 20% allowances = 28 minutes

An allowance of 20% was added to the measured time for all contingencies.

A = Achieved. This is the average time taken to produce the garment.

Total no. of people working on the style: 39, working 8 hours a day, the production output per hour=50 pieces.

Therefore, the actual time taken to make a garment is 47 minutes.

The M/A ratio is 28 / 47 x 100 =59.5%

40.5% of the operator time is lost, some of the reasons being:

  • Poor line balancing resulting in waiting time,
  • Poor workflow, and
  • Poor supervisory control.

Recommendation for case 3

  1. Bundle control systems with adequate bundle disciplines to be introduced.
  2. Proper standard times and operator monitoring procedures to be established.
  3. The supervisors need the training to manage WIP levels.
  4. The supervisors need the training to do proper production monitoring and control.
  5. Method Improvement procedures should be introduced.
  6. Production monitoring systems should be introduced.
  7. Production studies must be completed wherever poor performance is observed.
  8. Lost Time information must be collected analysed and acted upon.
  9. Repair handling procedures must be revised.
  10. Large inappropriate scissors must be eliminated.
  11. Operators should not be allowed to trim garment parts.

CASE STUDY 4: Front part puckering

When the operation performing process is analysed, sub-operations which are performed by operators are put in order as below:

  1. Getting front part-1 with two hands and place under the pressure foot.
  2. Place the transparent elastic band under the pressure foot.
  3. Sewing transparent elastic band to bottom of front part1 for 1 cm.
  4. Getting ruler.
  5. To measure 10 cm distance with the ruler on a transparent elastic band.
  6. Marking.
  7. Leaving ruler.
  8. Getting scissors.
  9. Cutting transparent elastic band from the marked point with the scissors.
  10. Leaving scissors.
  11. Sewing transparent elastic band to bottom of front part1 completely.
  12. Getting the piece with one hand and leaving it aside.

When the process of the operation is analysed after method study; the sub-operations performed by the operator are put in order as below:

  1. Getting front part-1 with two hands and place under the pressure foot.
  2. Place the transparent elastic band under the pressure foot.
  3. Sewing transparent elastic band to bottom of front part-1 for 1 cm.
  4. Marking according to ten centimetres distance which is pointed on the machine table before.
  5. Getting scissors.
  6. Cutting transparent elastic band from the marked point with the scissors.
  7. Leaving scissors.
  8. Sewing transparent elastic band to bottom of front part-1 completely.
  9. Getting the piece with one hand and leaving it aside.

As it can be seen from the activity charts which are given above, the new method is performed in shorter time than the previous method is performed. By changing the operation of transparent elastic band measurement, the sub-operations numbered 4, 5, and 7 are removed. As a result of this, operation duration decreases from 0. 571 minutes to 0.462 minutes.

CASE STUDY 5: Sewing shoulder

When the operation performing process is analysed, sub-operations which are performed by operators are put in order as below:

  1. Getting the front part with two hands and place it under the pressure foot.
  2. Getting back part with two hands and place under the pressure foot.
  3. Sewing the front and back parts from the shoulder.
  4. Getting the sewn parts with one hand.
  5. Getting scissors with one hand.
  6. Making regulate (cut off the excess fabric)
  7. Leaving scissors.
  8. Getting the piece with two hands and leaving aside.

When the process of the operation is analysed after method study; the sub-operations performed by the operator are put in order as below:

  1. Getting the front part with two hands and place it under the pressure foot.
  2. Getting back part with two hands and place under the pressure foot.
  3. Sewing the front and back parts from the shoulder.
  4. Getting the piece with two hands and leaving aside.

As it can be interpreted from the activity charts above, the recommended method is applied in a shorter time than the method applied before. The sub-operations numbered 4, 5, 6 and 7 are removed and the machine usage rate is increased by means of making another operator perform for regulating operation which is an operation performed after shoulder sewing. The operation time is decreased from 0.590 minutes to 0.383 minutes by means of eliminating the sub-operations that are mentioned above. The operation time being performed regulate the process by another operator is calculated as 0.193 minutes. In the frame of the recommended method, the total duration decreased 0.383+0.193=0.576 minutes. While the machine is kept occupied for 0.590 minutes by using the previous method, it is kept occupied for 0.383 minutes by using the recommended method.

PROCESS FLOWCHARTS

The garment manufacturing process involved a number of processes from order receiving to dispatching shipment of the finished garments. A process flow chart helps to understand how raw materials are moved from one process to another process until raw materials are transformed into the desired product (garments).

It is noted that a process flow chart made for the garment manufacturing processes will vary based on manufacturing facility and product types. As some companies do the whole process in a single plant when others do production jobs and other auxiliary processes are outsourced.

Based on the present apparel industry, garment manufacturing processes are categorized as

  • Pre-Production Processes – The pre-production process includes sampling, sourcing of raw materials, Approvals, PP meetings etc.
  • Production processes – Production processes are cutting, sewing etc.
  • Post-production processes – thread trimming, pressing, checking, folding and packing, shipment inspection etc.

EXAMPLE

Given below are some examples of process flow charts from the garment industry:

Garment manufacturing process flow chart (major processes)

Cutting Room Flow Chart

Process Flowchart of Shirt

TECHNIQUES TO REDUCE FATIGUE AND INCREASE PRODUCTIVITY

Use of the human body:

  1. Both hands same time.
  2. Both hands are not idle.
  3. The motion of arms is symmetrical &simultaneous.
  4. Eye & hand coordination.
  5. Order of movement – natural rhythmical.
  6. Hand and body motion lowest Classification.

Classification of body movement:

  1. Knuckle – Finger.
  2. Wrist – Hand & Finger.
  3. Elbow – Forearm, Hand & Finger.
  4. Shoulder – Upper arm, Forearm, Hand & Finger
  5. Trunk – Torso, Upper arm, Forearm, Hand& Finger.

Motion Economy – How?

  1. Reduce the number of motions.
  2. Reduce the distance moved.
  3. Reduce the precession.
  4. Reduce the eye shift.
  5. Simplify grasps.
  6. Toss dispose of rather than place dispose of.
  7. Best use of both hands.
  8. Encourage rhythm.
  9. Promote natural posture and movement.

Arrangement of the workplace:

  1. Definite & Fixed location.
  2. Pre-position reduces searching.
  3. Gravity feed.
  4. Tools & material -close to the workers as possible.
  5. Tools & materials -best sequences of motion.
  6. Drop delivers – where ever possible.
  7. Chair – the height of the workplace and comfort.
  8. Colour – contrasts with that of the work & reduce eye fatigue.

METHOD STUDY IN SEWING ROOM

Specific Sewing Room Methods -1:

  1. Table cut-offs or extensions.
  2. Raising of the machine.
  3. Special work aids.
  4. Mobile carts.
  5. Table cutouts.
  6. Close location of parts to the needle.
  7. Pick up & position without searching.
  8. Easiest grasps of parts from the bundle.

Specific Sewing Room Methods -2:

  1. Get parts without looking.
  2. Get parts during the sewing period.
  3. No re-position.
  4. Insert parts in a folder with a single push.
  5. Retain original alignment of parts while sewing.
  6. Resume sewing after start without pause.
  7. Quick turns while sewing.
  8. Continuous & full speed sewing.
  9. Dispose of by throwing & without looking.

Design of Tools & types of equipment:

  1. Relived holding by hand – jig, fixture, device.
  2. Combined tools.
  3. Inherent Capabilities of the finger.
  4. Placement of levers, crossbars hands, wheels least change in the body position.

FEW METHODS TO REDUCE THE TIME TAKEN IN THE GARMENT INDUSTRY

Non-Valuated Process

It is identifiable that the non-valuated processes (table front fabric store, number sticker and cut-panel check) require to be removed to increase productivity. It is preferable that the store loader bear fabric from the fabric store to the cutting table front place. Number sticker is needed for size and shade wise to assemble the parts and also maintain country-wise packing ratio and cut panel check used for faulty parts sort out and replacement.

The chart shows the non-valuated process details. There is a lot of money saved to complete the whole process of making garments to remove the non-valuated process. Not only money but also time, men power, space for front fabrics store etc. The factory can use these savings in other operations. From the chart, 1540 minutes are totally non-valuated. To use this time in other processes, we have to improve our productivity. In a garment factory, space is very important to ensure an effective layout. By taking away the non-valued process we can save 8.05m2 for one table and 32.2m2 for four tables. The proposed process is able to save USD 2639.7 by reducing those three processes.

Calculation of Non-Valuated

Way to manage without non valuated Process

We don’t want to use a numbering system. Using loose thread, fabric, paper differentiate role to role shade variation then role wise maintain bundle, otherwise hole check is one bundle. It should be strongly monitored bundle wise production. We don’t want to cut fabric checks. We use an error sticker in the fabric spreading preparation stage. Error is counting in fabric spreading process cause of needed replacement. But we sort out faulty fabric from the sewing, printing, or embroidery section.

METHODS TO INCREASE PRODUCTIVITY IN THE GARMENT INDUSTRY

  1. Conducting motion study and correcting faulty motions

    There is a saying “Even best can be improved”. So, go to Gemba (sewing floor) and look for the operator’s working method and movements. Prepare a checklist for good methods and movements. At the time of motion study, observe the operator’s movement and compare it with your checklist. If you found wrong movements is used by the operator or unnecessarily extra movement is present in the operation cycle correct it. If needed deskill operator. By doing this you can reduce operation cycle time and can improve labour productivity up to 100%* in individual operations (*in 20% of the total operations as per Pareto’s 80-20 Principle).

  2. Hourly operator capacity checks

    Employ work-study personnel (if you don’t have them) and start checking operator capacity hourly or bi-hourly. Compare actual operator’s hourly production with their capacity. If production is less then question them why? It helps in two ways – first, when the operator’s capacity is checked at the regular interval they will be under pressure. Secondly, work-study personnel start thinking about methods of how cycle time can be reduced. Using the capacity data, you can move ahead in balancing the line.

  3. Conduct R&D for the garment:

    A non-value-added (NVA) process but having a strong Research and Development (R&D) team in the factory brings a lot of benefits. R&D can be taken as a preparation stage for bulk production. This department does sample production and looks into potentially critical operations, plan for the requirement of special equipment, advises changes in terms of construction without changing styling. E.g. if an operation contains some raw stitches, which doesn’t affect the final look of the garment, then that operation can be avoided if possible, to save time. They plan for skill requirements for the operations. As a result, production runs without any break or with less no. of breaks. As it reduces the chance of the product breaks in production for unnecessary reasons, line productivity doesn’t come down.

  4. Use best possible line layout:

    Line layout means placing of machines and centre table (trolley with wheel) as per style requirement. The main purpose of choosing a better layout is to reduce transportation time in the line as much as possible. A stable line is not a good idea if you produce multiple products in the same line. A straight assembly line with a centre table at the left side is good for a product that has no preparatory work and individual operation SAM is nearby the pitch time. When a style includes a lot of preparatory work (for garment parts), it is better to make garment parts in sections and assemble them later. If possible, use an overhead transportation system.

  5. Scientific workstation layout:

    The workstation layout defines where an operator will pick up work (garment components) and where she will dispose of stitched garments. A scientific layout is defined as minimum reach for picking up and dispose of components. Every components and tool (trimmer) must be kept within operator reach. During workstation designing, engineering must follow key principles.

    • Components to be worked on should be positioned as near to the needle as possible.
    • The direction of the components where it is positioned on the table or track should be such a way that during moving component to the needlepoint does not need to turn it.
    • Placing of work at the same plane of the machine table so that operator can easily slide it to needlepoint.

    The purpose of designing a good workstation layout is to minimize the material handling time as much as possible. Thus, you can reduce operation cycle time. The secondary benefit of a good workstation is operators can work at the same pace without fatigue. When designing a workstation layout don’t forget to consider ergonomics.

  6. Improve line balancing:

    The purpose of balancing a line is to reduce the operator’s idle time or maximize operator utilization. In a balanced line work will flow smoothly and no time will be lost in waiting for work. At the time of line setting select operators for the operation matching operator skill history and skill required. Following this method, you will select highly skilled operators for higher work content operations. Once the line is set, conduct the capacity study at a regular interval.

  7. Use work aids, attachments, guides, correct pressure feet and folders:

    These are some kinds of time-saving devices that facilitate the operator to perform their work effectively with less effort. If work aids are used effectively operation cycle time can be reduced more time than the existing cycle time. In new and small factories where there is no experienced technical person (maintenance, IE personnel or production manager) generally not aware of the usage and availability of work aids. So their operators sew garment free hand.

  8. Continuous feeding to the sewing line:

    It is not the fault of the production department if they did not get cuttings to sew. All plans and efforts towards productivity will fail if the line is not been fed continuously. “No feeding or irregular feeding” is one of the top reasons for lower productivity in a poorly managed factory. Poor production plan, wrong selection product mix in seasons and ineffective cutting department are the reasons that stop continuous feeding. Once operators get the rhythm, they should be given non-stop feeding until style changeover to keep up the productivity. If you know there is the unavailability of cutting in near future then plan accordingly and don’t call all operators for that duration.

  9. Feed fault free and precise cutting to the line:

    Stop cutting and trimming of extra fabric from cut components by operators. If your cutter is not able to provide precise cutting, he should be trained. But faulty cutting doesn’t be fed into the line.

    When operators cut fabric, he performs the additional task in the operation cycle time. If in some cases trimming is intended then that task must be included in total work content. Otherwise, you will get the wrong (less) efficiency for the operator. Secondly, cuttings with fabric defects, pattern problems are issued to the sewing lines. As a result, the line produces defective garments. Alteration and repair work for defective garments reduces labour productivity.

  10. Using an auto trimmer sewing machine (UBT):

    Just think how many pieces an operator is producing in a day? Each time an operator trims thread using a trimmer or scissors consume a time minimum of 50 TMU or 2 Seconds (approx.). A rough estimate, in a day an operator will lose about 20 minutes just in thread cutting. In the operation of 0.5 SAM, an operator can make 40 extra pieces. Even a machine without an auto trimmer consumes more sewing thread. Those who use heavy (half kilogram weight) scissors may start using hand trimmers.

  11. Installing better equipment:

    A low performing machine is not acceptable where some of your good machines are idle in the same building. Use the best of your resources. If machines or equipment don’t perform well operator motivation goes down. Repetitive breakdown of machines increases the loss of time and bring down overall line efficiency and labour productivity. I have seen lines where the UBT machine is used in long seam operations and comparably lower work content. On the other hand, where shorter seams are being stitched, most of the time spent in thread trimming for taking out work from the needle, a normal lock stitch sewing machine is used.

  12. Inline quality inspection at regular intervals:

    A traffic light system is the most effective inspection tool to reduce defect generation at the source. Less number of defective seam is made less the time will be lost in repairing it. An inline checking system will alert operators in concentrating on their job. It also helps in another way. At the start of the style, an operator may not understand the specification, interaction with the quality inspector will make an operator clear about the quality requirement. Poorly managed factory loses productivity up to 10% due to repair and rejects.

ADVANTAGES OF METHOD STUDY

  •  Better design of plant equipment and buildings.
  • Less fatigue or workers by avoiding unnecessary movements of manpower.
  • Better working conditions and environment for workers/employees.
  • To have more effective utilization of materials, machines and manpower and money.
  • It is defined as the systematic recording and critical examination of existing and proposed methods of doing work.
  • Efficient and fast material handling equipment.
  • Leads to standardization, rationalization, simplification and specialization.
  • Efficient planning of the section.
  • Streamlined working procedures.
  • Greater job satisfaction.
  • Higher earning.
  • Improve layout of factory and office.
  • A higher standard of safety and health.
  • To improve the flow of work.
  • Effective materials handling.
  • Efficient process and procedure.
  • To improve the proper utilization of resources.
  • To get maximum output.
  • To improve administration.
  • Reduced material consumption and wastages.
  • Standardization and rationalization
  • Reduced manufacturing cost and higher productivity.

DISADVANTAGES OF METHOD STUDY

  • Many organizations fail to achieve savings and improvements by Method Improvement due to a lack of sustainability of the efforts.
  • It requires continuous, full time and dedicated efforts for real improvements. Merely systematic and scientific work-study is not sufficient, but it has to be applied continuously to be fruitful in the real sense.
  • Many times, it has been observed that management and IE practitioners stop putting efforts after seeing the initial positive results of work improvement, failing to anticipate long-term effects. This causes loss to the organizations not only in value terms but also wastage of time, efforts and morale of the work-study practitioners.
  • It has also been observed that the work-study practitioners stop following up and monitoring the suggested method, overjoyed by initial improved results. However, they fail to realize that operators tend to go back to the old method, if not monitored regularly. This makes all the efforts a waste and even questions the usefulness of an IE.

LATEST TECHNOLOGY OF METHOD STUDY IN GARMENT INDUSTRY

  • Delivery with quality and quantity is important for any garment manufacturing industry. At present, lead time is decreasing day by day and customer requirements also continuously changing. To complete customer demand whole production system should be more capable and efficient. For this reason, productivity is important for manufacturing industries and hence method needs to keep improving.
  • Garment industries are always having lots of production processes for desired products. Out of these processes, some are not essential and do not add any value to the product. Most of the time, management is not quite aware of the nonvalue-adding processes. If we observe a garments production line, we will see that there were lots of In-process inventories and waiting time between almost every sequential operation.
  • “Generally, in any industry, more focus is given on profit. Though there are different issues involved in cost reduction internally spent by industry through finding wastages, preventing and correcting defective work would result in huge savings”. The garments industries in Bangladesh do have an organizational structure but do not have the proper job description of the employees so the problem arises from the mid-level management. Description of rules and responsibilities along with power and authority is essential for smooth production running of any organization.
  • The present situation of the RMG sector is not a satisfying one and in the last year, there was a massive worker agitation because of salary structure, working environment, compliance issues and other human rights. In order to face the challenges garment manufacturers, have to apply new methods, tools and techniques in different areas of production and operation management and in other business areas. The method of working addresses the application of Lean manufacturing concepts to the mass production sector (RMG) with a focus on the value chain of the garment industry including cutting, sewing, finishing.

LEAN MANUFACTURING

  • Lean production is also called lean manufacturing. It is an integrated set of activities designed to achieve high-volume production using minimal inventories of raw materials, work-in-process, and finished goods.
  • Lean is also based on the logic that nothing will be produced until it is needed. Production need is created by actual demand for the product.
  • The objective of the study is to investigate the present status of the industry, the scope of improvement and the benefits gain by the implementation of new tools of lean manufacturing.
  • “Lean enterprise is mainly focused on eliminating waste. In manufacturing, lean principles include zero waiting time, pull instead of push scheduling, smaller batch sizes, line balancing on shorter process time.”
  • The use of lean production is now being practised by organizations that aim to increase productivity, improve product quality and manufacturing cycle time, reduce inventory, reduce lead time and eliminate manufacturing waste.
  • So, there is important to study the chance of implementation and the areas of improvement and the step by step methodology to do it in positive and learned thinking.

Principle of Lean Manufacturing

  • Key principles behind Lean Manufacturing can be summarized as follows:
  • Recognition of waste.
  • Standard processes.
  • Continuous flow.
  • Pull-production- Also called Just-in-Time (JIT).
  • Quality at the Source.
  • Continuous improvement.
  • Customer focus.

Best & Reliable Method of Workplace Organization in Industry:

The Five S’s are some rules for the method of workplace organization that aims to organize each worker’s work area for maximum efficiency.

1) First pillar: Sort (Seiri)

Sort what is needed and what is not needed so that the things that are frequently needed are available nearby and as easy to find as possible. Things that are less often used or not needed should be relocated or discarded.

2) Second Pillar: Seiton (Orderliness)

Arrange essential things in order for easy access. The objective is to minimize the amount of motion required in order for workers to do their jobs. For example, a toolbox can be used by an operator or a maintenance staff who must use various tools. In the toolbox, every tool is placed at a fixed spot that the user can quickly pick it up without spending time looking for it. This way of arrangement can also help the user be immediately aware of any missing tools.

3) Third Pillar: Shine (Seiso)

Shine means to keep machines and work areas clean so as to eliminate problems associated with in-cleanliness. In some industries, airborne dust is among the causes of poor product surface or colour contamination. To be more aware of dust, some companies paint their working places in light colours and use a high level of lighting.

4) Fourth Pillar: Standardize (Seiketsu)

Standardize is make the first 3S’s a routine practice by implementing clear procedures for sorting, straightening and scrubbing.

5) Fifth pillar: Sustain (Shitsuke)

Sustain – Promote, communicate and train in the 5 S’s to ensure that it is part of the company’s corporate culture. This might include assigning a team to be responsible for supervising compliance with the 5 S’s.

The Benefits of 5S (improves all the aspects by 3/4th)

  • Improves safety
  • Better working environment
  • Improve space utilization
  • Easy retrieval of material, information, tools etc.
  • Reduce quality problems
  • Lower costs
  • Increased customer satisfaction and
  • Discipline in the workplace etc.

Kanban:

Kanban is one of the most popular tools in lean manufacturing. This is a simple concept, but very effective. Kanban mainly focuses on the reduction of overproduction. There are mainly two types of Kanbans. A Kanban uses a designated workspace between operations to balance supply with demand. It means a visible record. Kanban triggers a mechanism to make or move material.

Kaizen:

It is a Japanese term for “continuous improvement”, with an emphasis on small incremental improvements. A main theme of Kaizen is to create a culture of continuous improvement, largely by assigning responsibility to workers and encouraging them, to identify opportunities for improvement.

Two main opportunities for improvement are:

  • The elimination of Muda (waste) from processes
  • The correction of any issues/problems within processes in addition to Muda

Method Organized workplace provides:

  • Lower space/facility requirements.
  • Improved use of floor space.
  • Allows more strategic management focus.
  • Improved knowledge retention.
  • New employees fit in more quickly with less training.
  • Cross-trained employees, flexible work cells with flexible people.
  • Small batch operations are more cost-effective.
  • Productivity/capacity increase, improved customer relations.
  • Inventory reduction, cost reduction, improved profit margins.
  • Improved efficiency, improved communication.
  • Quality improvement, improved vendor support and quality.
  • Higher labour efficiency and quality.
  • Reduced scrap and waste, reduced cycle time, reduced obsolescence.
  • High quality and reliability, lower overall costs, self-directed work team.
  • Lead time reduction, fast market response, longer machine life.
  • Improved flexibility in reacting to changes, increased shipping and billing frequencies.

Method of Cutting Implementation

“The cutting section of apparel manufacturing industry supplies the cut panels required in the sewing section for the production modules” For doing a good chain, Team building is important to achieve a goal. It is quite impossible for one or two people to overcome and follow up a lot of processes perfectly and nicely. As a result, many people are engaged here to accomplish the task properly. So, teamwork needs training and team building sessions that will help the people work together. Training is important to make the people knowledgeable about their tasks and responsibilities. By training, we can easily adopt a new concept and implement it.

  • Starting ten pieces bundling system

    The traditional bundling system is more than twenty to thirty pieces in one bundle. But in our new concept, the bundle is no more than ten pieces for tee-shirt, polo shirt and five pieces for jacket product. If the bundle is small, it will be easy to handling and can easily arrange it.

  • Maintaining serial in all ten pieces bundle to eliminate front with back and body with sleeve matching

    In the traditional system, we can see that all time one or two-person is engaged to match the front with back and body with sleeve. Now to reduce the helper we have to maintain serial in one bundle that we can easily match the front, back and sleeve without any problem.

  • Start all parts in one bundle together such as front, back, and sleeve cut panel

    In the traditional system, all parts are delivered as a separate bundle. As a result, the operator cannot find it easily and not interest to match it. So, our new concept is we will deliver all parts suppose front, back and sleeve together also maintain serial from cutting.

  • Utilization of band knife machine for small parts cutting to keep dimensional accuracy

    In current conditions, people are not using band knife machines for small parts cutting. As a result, the shape of the cut panel is not good. So, in our new concept for small piece cutting, we cannot use a normal straight knife cutter. We will use a band knife machine to keep small parts shape accuracy.

  • Start without numbering bundling system by implementing roll wise cutting system

    Our new idea is from now we will not use stickers attach to the cut panel we will cut the fabrics according to role wise and cannot amalgamate one role to another role if there are no shading issues that may come. Because the sticker is used only for shading purposes.

  • Maintain on-time input of all parts:

    To reduce changeover and through time also the non-production time we will ensure that all parts are provided together and at a time.

  • Use the same table for laying, cutting, checking and bundling to reduce transportation:

    To reduce transportation time on the cutting section we will use the same table for cutting numbering also check and bundling.

  • Elimination of bundle card writing helper by bundle card automation

    Previously six to seven helpers are engaged for bundle card writing and sometimes they cannot supply it quickly as an urgent requirement. Now new concept, may use automation of paper printing as a result, no need extra four to five helpers.

  • Method of Sewing Implementation

    Different types of improvement activities have been done in the sewing section which is divided into Operation Reduction & Helper Reduction

    1. Operator Reduction

      Two machines operating by one operator

      Normally one operator operates one machine but now one operator will operate two machines at a time. So, we can easily reduce one operator from one machine, by process scanning.

      Multi-tasking by one operator:

      Previously one person doing one task suppose operator is only operating machine but not thread cutting. Now our new concept is all workers will do two or three tasks at a time. For example, each operator will be thread trimming after sewing and some operators will be marking and sewing at a time.

      Job sharing

      Previously operator cannot share the job. But now our target is one operator will share two processes each hour, suppose half-hour will do collar joint and another half-hour will do another process collar topstitch.

      Helper Reduction:

      The helper can be reduced in different ways following are some procedures.

      Marking and thread trimming by the operator

      The new concept is made that every operator will be trimming their extra thread end after sewing if we do need to use an extra helper for thread trimmings.

    2. Elimination of matching through nicely arrange cut panel and all parts keep together in the bundle:

To reduce helper for the front with back and body with sleeve, the bundle is arranged serially and together and flow them together so, for this reason, we have no need extra two helpers for front-back match and body with sleeve match.

CONCLUSION

Many times, it is observed that whenever there is a problem (it may be related to low productivity or bottleneck, etc.) organizations focus on reducing the time without an inclination to know the root cause of the problem. IE is allotted to perform Time Study directly and many times, as a solution an increase in machine or operator is suggested. This practice may give temporary relief but in a real sense, this is not a solution to the problem. In fact, by doing this, we are adding cost to the manufacturing.

Here the right approach should be to first see the method, analyse it carefully and then put efforts to simplify the things. One must remember that the IEs job is to make things simple and easy for the operator because if the method is simple and easy it will lead to increased productivity and save critical time. It is suggested that, after the Method Improvement, Time Study should be done again to measure the improvements.

Method Study plays an important and decisive role in identifying and eliminating bottlenecks in the system, which cause long delivery time or unbalanced workflow. These techniques are also capable of highlighting the level of idle plant labour and unutilized/under-utilized resources.

At the same time, the findings of these studies are useful guides for further improvements in terms of work and wage standardization based on the skill of the operators. As Method Study techniques are capable of making the tasks simple, increasing the motion economy in human effort and reducing unnecessary efforts, results in the development of a better working environment and profitability for the organization.

REFERENCES

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