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Practical Garment Production Process – A Case Study

End-to-End detailed garment production process

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This project work deals with the productivity and quality enhancement in a garment manufacturing unit through a practical study conducted in the stitching department.

Sampling Department

After the confirmation of the order, each sample sent to the buyer has the following details attached to it, with the help of a tag. It contains the details pertaining to both, what the buyer has demanded and what supplement fabric/trims etc. they have used.

  • Ref no.
  • Colour
  • Fabric
  • Composition
  • Description
  • Quantity
  • Style no/ Size
  • Trims
Standard Operating Procedure


Fig 3.3- Tech pack
Fig 3.4- Tech pack


Fig 3.5- Tech pack


Sampling Process

The process of the sample department varies from context to context, and the development process covers a wide range of diverse products. There are different phases of sampling; the first phase covers the development of the initial concept or design idea through its approval by the customer and full review/risk analysis by the development and production teams.

The second phase covers the process following acceptance of the first prototype sample and includes the functions of sourcing and ordering components, testing the product and carrying out trails once the finalized sample specifications have been drawn up, the third and final phase commences. The phase includes a range of activities that are carried out before large scale or bulk production capacity outside the home producer/developers wherever this is applicable.

Development samples or inquiry samples

When they work with some buyers continuously, they have to keep on sending samples to them very often. Whenever they have inquiries, the buyer needs samples. Buyers like to see the garments in new fabric. For one inquiry, they need samples of different fabrics to choose from. If they want to develop a new style of new fabric, then also they have to send these samples.

Salesmen samples or promotional samples

Some buyer needs these samples for getting the orders from their customers. If the buyer is having 7 salesmen in his office, then the buyer will ask us to make 7 samples in each style. The salesmen book the orders from their customers, by showing these samples. Buyer places the order to them accumulating the quantities.

If they sent samples for 5 styles, sometimes, they may get orders for all 5 styles, 3 styles or 1 style. Sometimes, they may not get an order for even a single style. Expected sales may not be possible, due to poor quality, unsuitable colours, improper measurements, unmatched prints or embroidery, etc. of salesmen samples. Or it may be due to local business recession or competition or unsuitable prices. Anyway, they have to make these salesmen samples perfectly with a sincere interest to get orders.

Photo samples or fit samples

These samples are to be made after getting the order sheets. These samples are needed to check the measurements, style, and fit. So they can be made in available similar fabrics but in the actual measurements and specifications.

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Some buyers may need these samples if they want to print the photos of garments on photo inlays, packing boxes, hangtag, etc. These samples may be needed for local advertisements or buyer’s promotional occasions.

Pre-production samples

These samples are almost like approval samples. They made it on actual production fabric with actual bulk trims. They represent that the product will be like these samples.

Shipment samples

These samples are sent after shipment. They sent it in actual packing with all labels, tags, etc. Generally, these samples will not be tested by the buyer for anything. And even if they get some comments from buyers, they can save their selves by saying that these samples were sent from the leftover garments after the shipment; hence there might be some mistakes

Fabric Store

Based on the fabric consumption, total fabric requirement is generated for an order and the same is sourced from the pre-approved fabric supplier. The fabrics are in-house in the factory.

The fabric is required to check 100% of other sellers or can be 10% only in case of fabric sourced from its own mill. For example, the 4 Point System is used by the factories for fabric inspection.

Some fabric tests like fabric GSM, fabric shrinkage and colour bleeding in washing are done by the factory. If the fabric shrinkage is more than the allowance, fabrics are pre-shrunk for bulk cutting. Sometimes patterns are modified according to the fabric shrinkage.
It is common that when fabrics are sourced in bulk, the fabrics are processed in different lots (batches) depending on dyeing machine capacity. So, there are having shade variations of fabrics of the same colours. To avoid shade variation in garments shade band is prepared by the factory.

Fabric Store – Standard Operating Procedure


Fabric suppliers

  1. Banswara Mills- Rajasthan
  2. Arvind Lifestyle- Bangalore
  3. Arvind Ltd- Madhya Pradesh
  4. Raymond Ltd- Mumbai
  5. Raymond Apparel Ltd- Chindwara
  6. Bombay Rayon Fashion- Boisar
  7. Reliance Ltd- Mumbai
  8. Savika Fashion- Mumbai
  9. SVG- Ahmedabad
  10. Bhagwan Enterprises- Mumbai
  11. RSWM- Rajasthan
  12. Blue Fab- Mumbai
  13. Nahar Mills- Chandigarh
  14. Donear- Surat
  15. Aditya Birla- Bangalore
  16. Auro Textiles- Baddi
  17. Dee Jay International- New Delhi
  18. Grasim- Haryana
  19. Banswara Mill
  20. Nihalchal
  21. Raymond Luxury
  22. Raymond Limited
  23. Auro Textile
  24. Vardhman
  25. Punit Export
  26. Nahar Industrial
  27. O.C.M

Types of fabric

  1. Woven
  2. Polyester Viscose lycra
  3. Cotton Polyester
  4. Polyester Viscose
  5. Polyester blended wool
  6. PV
  7. Lycra
  8. Cotton
  9. Woolen
  10. Velvet
  11. Knitted
  12. Cotton-lycra

Types of Fusing

  • Lapel Fusing
  • Body Net
  • Belt Canvas
  • Microdot
  • R Fusing
Fig 4.1- Fabric store
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